Vicentino Tartini Brahms Beethoven Bach Werckmeister | CLASSIC

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by Vicentino Tartini Brahms Beethoven Bach Werckmeister

This album is meant to be "classic" in every way, matching formidable composers with the microtonal exactitude they deserve. Tartini in Vallotti tuning will sound definitive. Finally, Vicentino on CD. Brahms in Vallotti and Beethoven in Kirnberger II.
Genre: Classical: Chamber Music
Release Date: 

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  Song Share Time Download
1. Musica Prisca Caput
1:50 $0.99
2. Canon perpetuus super thema regium and 2 diverse canons from A Musical Offering, BWV 1079
2:48 $0.99
3. Devil's Trill Sonata in G Minor
13:06 $0.99
4. Preludium in G Major and Fuga
4:29 $0.99
5. Trio in Bb major, Opus 11: I. Allegro con brio
8:01 $0.99
6. Trio in Bb major, Opus 11: II. Adagio
4:22 $0.99
7. Trio in Bb major, Opus 11: III. Allegretto
6:07 $0.99
8. Horn Trio in Eb Major, Opus 40: I. Andante
7:26 $0.99
9. Horn Trio in Eb Major, Opus 40: II. Scherzo allegro
6:42 $0.99
10. Horn Trio in Eb Major, Opus 40: III. Adagio mesto
7:01 $0.99
11. Horn Trio in Eb Major, Opus 40: IV. Finale allegro con brio
6:17 $0.99
Downloads are available as MP3-320 files.


Album Notes

1. Nicolo Vicentino MUSICA PRISCA CAPUT
Douglas Frank Chorale:
Cynthia Shaw, soprano
Megan Friar, alto
Thom Baker, tenor
Gregg Lauterbach, bass

Johann Sebastian Bach A MUSICAL OFFERING (BWV 1079)
2. Canon perpetuus super thema regium
Canones diversi 1
Canones diversi 2

Dan Auerbach and Julianne Klopotic, violins
Johnny Reinhard, bassoon

Allegro energico
Allegro Assai
Allegro assai
Allegro assai
Dan Auerbach, solo violin
Joshua Pierce, piano in Vallotti tuning

4. Andreas Werckmeister PRELUDE AND FUGA
Joshua Pierce, piano in Werckmeister III tuning

Ludwig van Beethoven TRIO IN Bb MAJOR (Opus 11)
5. Allegro con brio
6. Adagio
7. Allegretto (Theme with 5 Variations)
Gilad Harel, clarinet
Daniel Barrett, cello
Joshua Pierce, piano in Kirnberger II tuning

Johannes Brahms HORN TRIO IN Eb MAJOR (Opus 40)
8. Andante
9. Scherzo allegro
10. Adagio mesto
11. Finale allegro con brio
Dan Auerbach, violin
James Ferree, natural horn
Joshua Pierce, piano in Vallotti tuning

Nicolo Vicentino (1511-1576) was a priest, composer, and music theorist who claimed that with proper support and encouragement he might revive the fabled secrets of ancient Greek music. MUSICA PRISCA CAPUT was composed in the enharmonic genus, a secular Latin motet for four voices that sets a prose text in honor of Vicentino’s patron, Cardinal Ippolito d’Este (for whom Palestrina worked as well). Douglas Frank wrote, “The appearance of enharmonic harmony in the last 18 measures builds to a climax. The name ‘Ippolito’ is always accompanied by enharmonic vertical sonorities. At the end, the notion of ‘high’ is depicted by an enharmonic octave leap surrounded by diatonic notes and the sendings of Ippolito’s deeds ‘above the heavens’ by two proximate octaves in succession.”

The performance was recorded on March 23, 1993 in New York’s Greenwich Village. It is available for the first time on this release. The piece was extracted from Vicentino’s treatise, “Ancient Music Adapted to Modern Practice, first published in Rome in 1555. The book described three genera of music: the diatonic, the chromatic, and the enharmonic, and used the phrase “musica communa” to mean the “ordinary diatonic” music of his day. This diatonic music was fit for public venues and plebian ears, in Vicentino’s opinion, as compared to chromatic and enharmonic music, which was deemed more appropriate for intimate venues and aristocratic ears. (The first introductory measures produced in the Treatise were omitted.)

Vicentino wrote: “When a composer has the freedom to write in the first mode of the diatonic or of the chromatic or of the enharmonic orders, he will have compositional resources of such richness, so many steps and various species adorned with so varied a set of procedures, that his compositions, on account of their great diversity of mixed steps, will be marvelous things to hear” (Vicentino, “Ancient Music Adapted to Modern Practice,” p. 205-206)

Musica prisca caput tenebris modo sustulit altis,
Dulcibus ut numeris priscis certain factis,
Facta rua, Hyppolite, excelsium super aethera mittat.

Ancient music of late has raised her head out of darkness,
So that, with antique and sweet numbers, to compete with ancient deeds,
Your great deeds, Hyppolitus, she might send high above the heavens.

The Douglas Frank Chorale is an intrepid vocal ensemble devoted to redefining choral music performance in the 21st century. The Chorale was founded in 2000, with its breakthrough recording “The A Cappella Singer,” winner of the distinguished CARA award (Contemporary A Cappella Recording Award) for Best Classical Album. The Douglas Frank Chorale may be heard performing compositions by Johann Michael Bach and Andreas Werckmeister on the EARLY CD (PITCH P-200202).

Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750) inherited a tuning that was “well-tempered,” noted for ease of modulation and for minute but recognizable variations between interval sizes throughout 12 major and 12 minor keys keys. Werckmeister III tuning was the primary embossment on the Baroque, which was to evade the claustrophobic prescriptions of either meantone or other spiraling irregular tunings. The tuning was first published by Andreas Werckmeister in his Orgel-Probe (1681). A MUSICAL OFFERING offers some tantalizing contradictions. Frederick the Great instigated the setting following a desire by the composer to see his newest grandchild. The court under Frederick the Great used utilized an extended sixth comma meantone, and therefore could not play Bach’s music because it required circular well temperament. Bach had only intended it for local consumption, making only100 copies of the work, and distributing them about. These canons were famously solved and published by Bach’s prominent student, Johann Philipp Kirnberger. This music contains rare examples of Bach writing in three parts without a continuo. The particular key of C minor in Werckmeister III tuning offers a sentiment that places each note lower in pitch in comparison to its equal temperament counterparts. In Werckmeister III tuning there are 39 different melodic intervals produced at six cents apart (1200 cents to the octave). The tuning is given below in cents. For more detail see “Bach and Tuning” by Johnny Reinhard available from the AFMM on its website,

Werckmeister Preferred Chromatic (Werckmeister III tuning)

C C# D Eb E F F# G G# A Bb B
0 90 192 294 390 498 588 696 792 888 996 1092

While the Italian virtuoso Nicolo Paganini is the violinist most often mentioned in connection with the Devil, tales of demonic violinists first emerged as early as the 17th century. The eighteenth-century Italian violinist Giuseppe Tartini continued this tradition with his claims of a dreamy pact with the Devil. In this Faustian dream, Tartini, having been given a violin from the Devil, heard himself play a sonata so original and beautiful that it was like no other. When Tartini awoke he immediately set out to compose what came to be known as the DEVIL’S TRILL, the SONATA IN G MINOR for violin and piano. Scholars place the date of composition somewhere between 1720 and 1740. The sonata opens with a tranquil siciliano, followed by the demonic encounter. This lively movement sets the tone for the finale, which contains the celebrated “Devil’s Trill.” The ensuing cadenza elaborates on this fiendish portion. (Notes by Dan Auerbach.)

Andreas Werckmeister (1645-1706) is credited for fully describing and promoting the “circle” of 12 major and minor keys through “well temperament” for the first time in history. Born in Benneckenstein, Thuringia, Werckmeister lived his entire life in the Harz Mountain region, although he frequently traveled throughout different German lands. In Quedlinburg, Werckmeister published nine books, often in revised editions, treating with music theory, theology, composition, and organ building. Bach apparently owned a copy of Werckmeister’s Orgel-Probe (1681), a dedicated diagnostic for organ building, in his personal library (according to Bach scholar Christoph Wolff). Andreas Werckmeister’s PRELUDIDUM IN G AND FUGA for keyboard solo is one of only a few surviving compositions. Werckmeister was primarily an organist improviser and musical pedagogue, in addition to being a theorist. The Werckmeister family was not unlike the Bach family in many ways; both families worked as devout musicians and committed educators in neighboring cities. Bach’s cousin Walther studied with Werckmeister in Halberstadt and praised this master in his 1732 Musicalisches Lexikon, the first German language encyclopedia of music.

Ludwig van Beethoven composed the TRIO IN Bb MAJOR, Opus 11 “Gassenhauer” for clarinet (or violin), cello and piano in 1797. The piano has been tuned by Marc Weinert in Kirnberger II tuning. It was performed on an AFMM concert on March 26, 2005 at Faust Harrison Pianos in New York City. The All Music Guide © provides some good commentary:
The finale, a set of variations, is based on the theme of the trio Pria ch'io l'impegno, from Joseph Weigl's opera L'amor marinaro of 1797. Weigl (1766-1846) was a composer and conductor at the Kärntnertor Theater in Vienna. The most sensible tale of the origins of the Trio, Op. 11, is found in Thayer, who suggests that a local clarinetist asked Beethoven to employ the Weigl theme in the finale of the work, as the tune was very popular at the time. The publication, in 1798 by Mollo in Vienna, is dedicated to Countess Maria Wilhelmine von Thun, the mother-in-law of Prince Karl Lichnowsky, one of Beethoven's chief patrons. A contemporary review of the trio notes Beethoven's "unusual harmonic knowledge."
Differences between the clarinet and optional violin part are few: descending lines in the clarinet are altered in the violin part when they would pass below its range, and some of the single notes in the clarinet part are written in double- or triple-stops for the violin. The most striking feature of the Allegro con brio first movement is the transition between the first and second themes. After a convincing modulation to the dominant, F major, what sounds like a second theme begins, but on D major. This quickly dissolves into fragments of the first theme and leads to the actual second theme, appearing first in the piano in F major. Beethoven forgoes the D major episode in the recapitulation. Beethoven sets the central Adagio in E flat major.
Kirnberger II Tuning:

C C# D Eb E F F# G G# A Bb B
0 90 204 294 386 498 590 702 792 895 996 1088

Johannes Brahms composed the HORN TRIO in the spring of 1865. An elegiac mood pervades much of the work. The opening movement is marked Andante. Furthermore, the third movement uses the term mesto, and includes a quotation from “Wer nur den lieben gott lasst walten,” an old German funeral chorale (also used by Bach in his funerary cantata of the same title, BWV 93). It may be that Brahms intended this Trio to serve as a requiem for his mother, as he composed it shortly after her death. There are other aspects to the work as well; the hunt scenes in the finale, and the vigor of the scherzo. The elegiac mood reasserts itself in the trio section of the scherzo. Brahms wrote the horn part for the natural valve-less horn (by then already obsolete). This horn is very difficult to play, since those notes that do not fall into the basic overtone series have to be stopped by hand. That Brahms wrote a virtuosic horn part, on par with the violin, does not make it any easier. The horn used for this trio is usually the modern valve horn, but here it is played on the intended natural horn. The Horn Trio is unique among Brahms’s works, apart from the unusual instrumentation, as it is the only one of his instrumental works which does not employ sonata-allegro form. The form chosen by Brahms instead is comprised of motivic interrelation among the movements, as well as simpler forms.


Dan Auerbach - violinist, has been described by the New York Times as a player “with quiet virtuosity.” Mr. Auerbach earned his Doctor of Musical Arts degree from the Mason Gross School of the Arts, Rutgers University as a student of Arnold Steinhardt. He also holds B.M. and M.M. degrees from The Juilliard School, where he studied with Dorothy DeLay, Felix Galimir, Harvey Shapiro and Lewis Kaplan. Mr. Auerbach is the recipient of numerous awards and prizes, including a graduate fellowship from Rutgers University, and the Irene Alm Memorial Prize for excellence in performance and scholarly research. He has performed solo in such venues as Alice Tully Hall, the Kennedy Center, and the Juilliard Theatre. As a chamber musician he has enjoyed collaborating with the New Brunswick Chamber Orchestra, Moscow Chamber Orchestra, the West-End Players of the Dallas Symphony, Columbia University's Collegium Musicum, and the Jose Limon Dance Company. CD releases include the American Festival of Microtonal Music recordings on the PITCH label and the David Glukh Klezmer Ensemble. Upcoming performances include a Mozart Requiem performance in Carnegie Hall. Beginning this Fall, Mr. Auerbach will join the violin faculty at Morningside College in Iowa.

Julianne Klopotic, violinist, is a native of Milwaukee Wisconsin where she began her musical studies at the age of five. She has attended the North Carolina School of the Arts, Peabody Conservatory, and the Mannes College of Music in New York City. Her teachers include Elaine Richey, Sylvia Rosenberg, Shirley Givens and Felix Galimir. Julianne appears as soloist, chamber musician, orchestral player, teacher, improviser and arranger. In collaboration she has worked with many composers, songwriters, bands, and recording artists. Winner of the Artists International Solo Competition she was awarded her New York debut at Carnegie Hall's Weill recital hall. She is known for her diversity as a player, and can be found on recordings ranging from her work with Philip Glass to popular songwriter Natalie Merchant. She appears as soloist and leader of various experimental and contemporary groups including: The Microtonal Festival, The SEM Ensemble, Downtown Chamber Players, Music Under Construction, 1687 Inc., The Evolution Ensemble, Mantra Music, Present Music, Forecast, and her work with the now internationally known New York based band, Antony and the Johnsons. Orchestrally, she has been a member of the Jupiter Symphony, Riverside Symphony, The Philadelphia Virtuosi Chamber Orchestra and the Orchestra of St. Lukes. Ms. Klopotic is a grant recipient of the Mikhasoff Trust for New Music, The New York Women Composers Society, as well as a member of the American Music Society, Women in Music, and Chamber Music America. She has appeared on national television and radio shows; VH1, MTV, "The Tonight Show," and Rosie O'Donnell, as well as performing live at Merkin Hall for National Public Radios, "New Sounds". As a recording artist and chamber musician, she has recorded often with Karl Berger and the Material Strings and members of the Syrius String Quartet. She can be found on the following record labels: Universal Music, 4-Tay, Naxos, Arista, Polygram, Colombia, Sony Classical, Socialist Records, Stockholm, Durto, Rebis Music, Restless Records, Polydor, Touch and Go, and the American Festival of Microtonal Music. Others Julianne has performed or recorded with include; Alicia Keyes, Alana Davis, A Camp, Angelique Kudjo, Aphex Twin, Enya, Lori Carson, Sheryl Crow, Elodie Lauten, Philip Glass, Bill Laswell, Jon Catler, Jonnie Reinhardt, Karl Berger, Lili Haydn, Dr.John, KRS1, Micha Green, Jewel, Natalie Merchant, Manbreak, Antony and The Johnsons, Nina Nastasia, Duncan Sheik, Donna Summer, Tom Burris, Thin Lizard Dawn, Pony, Elysian Fields, Voltaire, Coheed and Cambria, and Rufus Wainwright.

Joshua Pierce grew up in New York City, studying at the Juilliard School of Music, where for seven years he was the recipient of the Heckscher Foundation Award, as well as awards from the Manhattan School of Music, Columbia University, and the Cleveland Institute where he received the Victor Babin Award. Many more awards would follow during his career. His principal teacher and mentor was Dorothy Taubman, with extensive chamber music work with Bernard Greenhouse, Joseph Seiger and Artur Balsam. Mr. Pierce has performed internationally as solo recitalist, in chamber music performances, with Russia's famed Leontovich String Quartet, as well as with many of the major orchestras of Western and Eastern Europe, the U.S. and Latin America. He reached much acclaim as part of the piano team, Pierce and Jonas, with Dorothy Jonas. He has given historic performances of works by Charles Ives and John Cage in Russia where he received outstanding reviews and audience acclaim. A highly prolific recording artist, Mr. Pierce has recorded over 200 works including numerous World Premieres as a soloist and with orchestra for MSR Classics, EMI Classics, Carlton Classics, Helicon, Koch International Classics, MMC, Pro Arte, Sony Classics, PITCH, Vox and other labels. He has recorded more than 40 solo concertos including works by Tchaikovsky, Khachaturian, Rachmaninov, Prokofiev as well as the complete piano concertos of Beethoven, Brahms, Liszt and Gershwin. Other recordings include works by Schubert, Hummel, Czerny, Reinecke, Weber, Chopin, Mendelssohn, Franck, Strauss, Casella, Respighi and Ellington. His 20-year association and work with the late innovator-composer John Cage, is legendary. Mr. Pierce's landmark series of recordings of Cage's keyboard music for the German label Wergo: John Cage, Works for Piano and Prepared Piano Volumes I, II, III, IV and Sonatas and Interludes for Prepared Piano have received many prizes, much critical acclaim, and in 1991 won the Prieses Der Deutschen Schallplattenkritik. In May 2000, Mr. Pierce made music history by becoming the first pianist ever to perform John Cage's Sonatas and Interludes for Prepared Piano, Daughters of the Lonesome Isle and the Three Page Sonata by Charles Ives at the Alternitivo Festival of Contemporary Music 2000 in Moscow, Russia and at the 4th ISCM Festival Europe/Asia 2000 in Kazan, Russia to great critical acclaim. Mr. Pierce continues his association with the American Festival of Microtonal Music, Inc. (AFMM), as he is the organization's official pianist, and an active member of the AFMM Board. In 1996, Johnny Reinhard brought his realization of Charles Ives' Universe Symphony to Alice Tully Hall with Mr. Pierce as pianist. They have performed together throughout Russia, Europe and the United States since 1983, presenting a wide variety of composers including many important works by John Cage, Harry Partch, Charles Ives, and Ivan Wyschnegradsky. His website is at

Johnny Reinhard, composer, conductor, bassoonist, director and founder of the American Festival of Microtonal Music (AFMM), is a native New Yorker specializing in all manner of microtonal performance. Additionally, Reinhard performs on the recorder, and is a vocalist specializing in the works of American microtonal pioneer Harry Partch. He has given numerous full recitals including in New York, Seattle, Baltimore, Los Angeles, Montreal, Amsterdam, Sapporo, Moscow, and Kazan. Of particular interest is his finishing important works of composers in exemplary performance. These include his realization and subsequent premiere performance of Charles Ives’s “Universe Symphony” in 1996 in New York’s Lincoln Center, and the premiere in of Edgard Varèse’s “Graphs and Time” in 1987 at the Centre Pompidou in Paris. Reinhard’s transcription of Ivan Wyschnegradsky’s “Meditation sur deux themes” (1917) for bassoon and piano was recorded on “Between the Keys” for Newport Classic (now Sony), and has been re-recorded for Solyd Records (Russia), and again for the AFMM’s PITCH label. Among the world premieres he produced are Lou Harrison’s “Simfony in Free Style,” Terry Riley’s “In C in Just Intonation,” Percy Grainger’s “Free Music” for 4 Theremin, the original version of Harry Partch’s “Ulysses Departs From the Edge of the World” for trumpet, double bass and boobams, and Mordecai Sandberg’s orchestral “Psalm 51.” Johnny Reinhard’s original compositions feature polymicrotonality – either the active mixing of microtonal tunings in a single composition, or the invention of brand new pitch relationships (e.g., harmonic 17 tuning, quadratic prime just intonation, collapsed just intonation). Among his works are a symphony (“Middle-earth”), cello concerto (“Odysseus”), string quartet (“Cosmic Rays”), a large number of virtuoso solo pieces for different instruments in distinctive tunings, and numerous chamber works featuring unusual timbres and requiring different degrees of improvisation. Johnny Reinhard’s compositions can be heard on the “Raven” album, available from He recently completed a triptych for bass trombonist Dave Taylor. Reinhard has performed as a soloist throughout Europe and the United States, Japan, Canada, and Russia. He has played with such international virtuosi as kavalist Theodossii Spassov (Bulgaria), oboist Bram Kreeftmeijer (The Netherlands), saxophonist John Butcher (London), percussionist Rashied Ali (NYC), and Thereminist Lydia Kavina (Russia). In 2002 he was featured on bassoon to critical acclaim by Ornette Coleman for the Bell Atlantic Jazz Festival. Reinhard is professor of bassoon at New York University. Previously, he taught music composition and theory at C.W. Post, Long Island University, taught The Arithmetic of Listening at Bard College, and taught Western Art Music at Columbia University. He has guest lectured on tuning related subjects at Columbia University, New York University, Manhattan School of Music, Hunter College/CUNY, CalArts, San Jose State University, Indiana University, South Dakota State University, the Hamburg Hochschule in Germany, the Tchaikovsky Conservatory in Moscow, and York University in England. Reinhard introduced first performances of Harry Partch’s 43-tone just intonation works in Norway (International Bergen Festival), France (M.A.N.C.A.), Switzerland (RoteFabrik), Italy (Teatro la Fenice), Canada (Toronto, Winnipeg, and St. John’s), and England (London’s Barbican). In the early ‘90s he published PITCH for the International Microtonalist as a 4-issue set for musicians working independently. Since 2004, the AFMM launched 15 different PITCH CD titles, available at Johnny Reinhard hosts New York-based WKCR-FM radio’s popular four-hour Christmas Day “Microtonal Bach” segment in their annual 10-day Bach Festival. He is often a guest on John Schaefer’s New Sounds show on WNYC-FM, and has been featured in radio programs by radio interviewers Anatol Vieru (Bucharest), Laurie Schwartz (Berlin/RIAS & Sender Frei), PILOTA radio (Bergen), and John Schneider (KPFK Los Angeles).

James Ferree of Lawrenceville, Georgia, was a senior horn student at The Juilliard School in the studio of the late Jerome Ashby. Previous teachers have included Philip Myers, Hermann Baumann, and Richard Deane. He is a recipient of Juilliard's Presidential Distinction award and was recently featured as solo horn on Juilliard/AXIOM’s performance of Messiaen’s “Des canyons aux etoiles…”. Winner of the 2006 Northeast Horn Workshop Solo Competition, the 2004 Atlanta Federation of Musicians Competition, and the 2003 Jon Hawkins Memorial Scholarship of the International Horn Society. He has performed with the Charleston Symphony, the Music Academy of the West Festival Orchestra, the Long Island Philharmonic, and the New York Sinfonietta. As soloist and chamber musician he has performed in venues across the nation as well as Europe and Asia. His piano quintet was recently featured on a special by the Financial News in Korea. Mr. Ferree has studied music composition with Dr. Philip Lasser at The Juilliard School He has written several works for horn, piano, voice, and various chamber ensembles.

Dan Barrett, cello, is an active NYC performer, composer and conductor. Cello performances include the Radio France Festival, The Guilbenkian Festival of Portugal, The XGT Ensemble, and The Alvin Ailey Dance Company. As principle cellist, Dan performs with the STX Ensemble, The SEM Ensemble, The Crosstown Ensemble, the AFMM, North/South Ensemble, and the Sirius Quartet. He directs The New York Bach Ensemble, The Absolute Chamber Players at the Kostabi Series, the ensemble of the American Composer’s forum, The Ethos Ensemble, and James Joyce’s “The Dead” on Broadway. His compositions and arrangements have been performed by The Absolute Ensemble, The Sound Liberation ensemble, The North/South Consonance, The Williamsburg Chamber Orchestra, and the satirical Ensemble Zombie Staatsoper. Dan has been featured on The Rosie O’Donnell Show and on Saturday Night Live.

Gilad Harrel, clarinet, a native of Israel, is a prominent clarinetist in the NY scene. He has performed with the Chamber Music Society of Lincoln Center and the newly formed Columbia Sinfonietta. He is collaborating with musicians from the Orpheus Chamber Orchestra and participated in the Mircotonal Festival in NY. An artistic director of Fountain Chamber Music Society, New York, Mr. Harel is also the clarinetist of the Fountain and the Proteus Ensembles, New York, a member of the PollyRhythm Players, New York, and is the principal clarinetist of the Crested Butte Music Festival Orchestra. He is a substitute teacher at The Juilliard Pre-College Division, has given master classes at the Southeastern Oklahoma State University, the Temple University of Texas and the Community College of West Palm Beach, Florida and was faculty at the Young Artist Program, Amherst College, Massachusetts. Mr. Harel is a graduate of The Juilliard School and the Conservatoire National de Paris.

All recordings on the CLASSIC CD are from “live” AFMM concerts:

Piano Tuner: Marc Weinert (Tartini, Werckmeister, Beethoven, Brahms)
Recording Engineers: Norman Greenspan (Vicentino, Beethoven)
Corey Caub (Bach, Werckmeister, Tartini, Brahms)
Mastered by Paul Geluso
CD Cover Artist: Orlanda Brugnola ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

Johnny Reinhard, Director, AFMM
318 East 70th Street, Suite #5-FW
New York, New York 10021 USA

Support from the New York State Council on the Arts and the Maldeb Foundation



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