Ensemble Lipzodes & the Pro Arte Singers | Oy Hasemos Fiesta

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Oy Hasemos Fiesta

by Ensemble Lipzodes & the Pro Arte Singers

An IUMusic-Focus production from the Indiana University Jacobs School of Music. Music from 16th-century Guatemala for voices and winds
Genre: Classical: Early Music
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  Song Share Time Download
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1. Pabanilla
Ensemble Lipzodes & the Pro Arte Singers
0:58 $0.99
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2. Cuentas a Santa Maria
Ensemble Lipzodes & the Pro Arte Singers
1:37 $0.99
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3. Maria de solo un buelo
Ensemble Lipzodes & the Pro Arte Singers
1:14 $0.99
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4. Christe redemptor omnium
Ensemble Lipzodes & the Pro Arte Singers
3:29 $0.99
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5. Kyrie
Ensemble Lipzodes & the Pro Arte Singers
1:23 $0.99
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6. Gloria
Ensemble Lipzodes & the Pro Arte Singers
3:45 $0.99
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7. Archangele Michael
Ensemble Lipzodes & the Pro Arte Singers
2:51 $0.99
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8. Istadiorum
Ensemble Lipzodes & the Pro Arte Singers
1:48 $0.99
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9. Psalm 147
Ensemble Lipzodes & the Pro Arte Singers
3:47 $0.99
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10. Credo
Ensemble Lipzodes & the Pro Arte Singers
5:10 $0.99
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11. Angelus Domini
Ensemble Lipzodes & the Pro Arte Singers
1:50 $0.99
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12. Sanctus
Ensemble Lipzodes & the Pro Arte Singers
1:00 $0.99
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13. Y tech nepa
Ensemble Lipzodes & the Pro Arte Singers
2:27 $0.99
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14. Romance
Ensemble Lipzodes & the Pro Arte Singers
0:41 $0.99
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15. Pange lingua
Ensemble Lipzodes & the Pro Arte Singers
3:55 $0.99
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16. Pange lingua (instrumental)
Ensemble Lipzodes & the Pro Arte Singers
0:54 $0.99
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17. Agnus dei
Ensemble Lipzodes & the Pro Arte Singers
1:12 $0.99
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18. Salamanca
Ensemble Lipzodes & the Pro Arte Singers
0:52 $0.99
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19. Fahuana
Ensemble Lipzodes & the Pro Arte Singers
1:21 $0.99
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20. Dominus regnavit
Ensemble Lipzodes & the Pro Arte Singers
1:10 $0.99
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21. Primero tonos
Ensemble Lipzodes & the Pro Arte Singers
1:10 $0.99
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22. Ave maris stella
Ensemble Lipzodes & the Pro Arte Singers
2:03 $0.99
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23. Gaude mater eccesia
Ensemble Lipzodes & the Pro Arte Singers
2:25 $0.99
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24. Mulier quit prolas
Ensemble Lipzodes & the Pro Arte Singers
1:56 $0.99
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25. Untitled (Mateo Fernandes, fl. 1570)
Ensemble Lipzodes & the Pro Arte Singers
1:40 $0.99
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26. Aparejad bellesteros
Ensemble Lipzodes & the Pro Arte Singers
1:28 $0.99
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27. Hic solus
Ensemble Lipzodes & the Pro Arte Singers
0:36 $0.99
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28. Audi benigne conditor
Ensemble Lipzodes & the Pro Arte Singers
2:40 $0.99
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29. Quantelecta
Ensemble Lipzodes & the Pro Arte Singers
0:52 $0.99
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30. Oy hasemos fiesta todas
Ensemble Lipzodes & the Pro Arte Singers
1:39 $0.99
Downloads are available as MP3-320 files.

ABOUT THIS ALBUM


Album Notes
This project is based on a sixteenth-century Guatemalan manuscript residing at IU’s Lilly Library. The music preserved in it offers a glimpse of what must have been common in small villages far-removed from the power centers of the Spanish colonists.

Notes and Translations
Ensemble Lipzodes and Focus Recordings/IU Music care about the environment as well as about offering you, the listener, an enjoyable and informative listening experience. In order to conserve the use of paper, the complete program notes, texts, translations, and performer biographies can be found on the Ensemble Lipzodes Web site (http://lipzodes.org)

The Lilly Library Guatemalan Manuscripts
By remarkably good fortune, the western central corner of Guatemala is the origin of a collection of manuscripts that bears witness to the amazing importation of European choral music into the “New World.” The Spanish colonists brought a variety of tools to the New World to convert the native peoples they encountered to Christianity. Music proved a strong selling point in an indigenous culture that held its own musicians in very high esteem.

In the 1960s, several manuscripts from the sixteenth century were found in a remote section of Guatemala. The music preserved in them offers a glimpse of what must have been common in small villages far-removed from the power centers of the Spanish colonists.

The collection of choral music and plainsong in the Lilly Library Collection of Guatemalan Music Manuscripts adds substantially to the evidence that gives Guatemala a place beside other large urban centers such as Mexico City, Cusco, Oaxaca, and Bogotá in the history of Renaissance music in the Spanish colonies.

Choral Music and Chant
This preservation of the European Renaissance choral music canon can be seen foreshadowed by the devotion of the indigenous population as described in early seventeenth-century geographies, such as the one by Antonio Vázquez de Espinosa:

In all Indian villages throughout the Indies, both in New Spain, Honduras, Nicaragua, the Kingdom of Grenada, and Peru, no matter how small the villages may be, they have distinguished cantors and choirmasters, who officiate with great seriousness and piety at the Mass; they sing vespers to polyphony, and celebrate saints’ days much better than Spaniards do. Every day, they repair with as much exactitude as if they were monks or canons, to their choir in the church to repeat the office of Our Lady, and they never fail to do this every day with great solicitude and devotion. Antonio Vásquez de Espinosa, Compendium and Description of the West Indies, trans. By Charles U. Clark, Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, Vol. 102 (Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution, 1942), p. 223.

Interestingly, for the three centuries after the copying of these manuscripts, it was pure-blooded Indians in Guatemala rather than ladinos and descendants of conquistadores who most carefully respected the legacy of European Renaissance music brought over by the missionaries. Doubtless, in the sixteenth century, they must have marveled at the music of masters such as Mouton and Morales, as demonstrated by the copying of choirbooks from the Mexican and Guatemalan cathedrals and the eager sharing of the same with maestros throughout the region. This repertory fused with the musicians’ native language in coplas and villancicos, and its use continued until the end of the colony. As the practice of singing the choirbooks’ music declined, the manuscripts became, in and of themselves, objects of devotion, attesting to their high status amongst the indigenous population.

The music contained in the Lilly Library’s manuscripts forms a miscellaneous collection. Chant and polyphony appear on adjacent pages; lengthy masses and short fabordones turn up in a single manuscript fascicle; and Latin motets, vernacular villancicos, and textless fragments showcase the range of material found throughout
the manuscripts. Many are anonymous works, some of which are surely written by native Guatemalans. They exemplify the diversity and flexibility of musical form and style characteristic of motets written around the turn of the sixteenth century.

A number of languages appear among the texts in the Lilly Library manuscripts. Spanish is, of course, encountered most frequently. Within the other manuscripts, Spanish texts occasionally turn up interspersed with the more predominant Latin texts. French makes an appearance among those compositions but only as text
incipits; most of the Spanish texts are villancicos. Although musicologist Sheila Raney Baird states that Nahuatl is the language of the three non-European language works in MS 7, only five other compositions in the entire manuscript group have non-European language texts;1 none of these others is Nahuatl (they may, however, be in Jacaltec-Chuj, another indigenous language from the area). On this recording, Ensemble Lipzodes and Pro Arte perform the Nahuatl communion responsory Y tech nepa (7/9).

The question of what chant was used for celebration of the office can be discerned without much difficulty. The choirbook inventory at Guatemala cathedral taken May 9, 1542, while Martin Vejarano was chantre, listed—amongst other items—five Sevillian missals on paper and one on vellum; two more Sevillian missals were added on April 2, 1549. These examples illustrate that, as elsewhere in Spanish New World cathedrals until late in the century, Sevillian use dictated the liturgy, the repertory, and even the instruments brought to Guatemala. The caxa de flautas grandes purchased for cathedral use on April 2, 1549, calls to mind similar sets of flautas bought at Seville during Francisco Guerrero’s regime. As such, we can expect that not only were the polyphonic pieces an inheritance of the Sevillian capilla, but also that the chant, singing style, and language employed by the chantres demonstrated that city’s musical legacy as the mouthpiece from which musical influence upon performers and repertory flowed to the New World colony.

The Instruments
“The majority [of Indians] are good singers and expert in all sorts of musical instruments, shawms, flutes, sackbuts, curtals, and organs which they make out of numerous reeds very cleverly and ingeniously joined together; they use these to celebrate the divine service with great solemnity …”

Antonio Vásquez de Espinosa. Compendio y descripción de las indias occidentales. (An early seventeenth-century description of the music in the Diocese of Guatemala.)

In our interpretation of this music, we use many of the instruments mentioned by Antonio Vásquez in the quote above. Certainly, there is ample evidence for the use of instruments in Spanish cathedrals: an important document dated 1548 from the León cathedral describes very specifically when the instruments should play; a
similar account from 1580s Seville, dictating when and where a given shawm of the consort is permitted to ornament, is particularly enlightening.3 That these practices were carried to the colonies is also supported by Vasquez’s account.

Other instruments used in this recording that were also mentioned by Vásquez as having been in use in Guatemala during the period in which the manuscripts were compiled include organ, recorders, and sackbut.

The Instrumental Music
Most of the music in the manuscripts is texted or at least marked with a title or incipit. A few pieces are completely textless, while others are quite clearly dances: titles such as Pabanilla and Fahuana are found and are probably Mayan attempts at spelling pavanilla and pavana. (Orthography in the manuscripts is always problematic as the native languages of the region often lack phonemes common in Spanish.) The apparently non-European title of one untexted pavane-like piece, Quantelcta, remains untranslated. Contrafacta of early sixteenth-century Parisian chansons, including the famous song Tant que vivray by Claudin de Sermisy, are also instrumentally viable. Finally, the Spanish tradition of falsobordón—while normally used to sing a Psalm in a very simple homorhythmic, multi-voice texture—is sometimes employed in compositions for instruments. Of the various polyphonic pieces without underlain text—and which the ensemble has chosen to perform as instrumental pieces—Mulier quit prolas, Istadiorum, Hic solus, Super Flumine, and Angelus Domini are all lengthy motets, each with a series of varied sections constructed on differing points of imitation that alternate with portions in chordal homophony. These pieces exemplify some of the finest music from the Old World, which the Guatemalan scribes chose to include in their collections.

ENSEMBGLE LIPZODES
Ensemble Lipzodes is a unique group of performers that came together in 2004 in Bloomington, Ind., while its members were students completing degrees in the IU Jacobs School of Music and its Early Music Institute. The ensemble combines voice, shawms, dulcians, recorders, and percussion to bring to life the rarely performed music of sixteenth-century Guatemala. In addition to this singular repertoire, the ensemble also explores new directions in early music utilizing voices and winds. The group's name comes from a creative misinterpretation of the writing on the flyleaf of MS 1, Santa Eulalia, from the Guatemalan Music Manuscripts. What at first glance seems to say "Lipzodes," actually is the first part of a passage which continues further: "LibRodeSancta olaya Puyumatlan. ..." In an orthographic transformation typical of the region, the letters "b" and "p" became exchanged, and the "R" lost its vertical bar, to become what appeared to be a "Z."

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