Phillip Rehfeldt & Barney Childs | The Redlands Codex

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The Redlands Codex

by Phillip Rehfeldt & Barney Childs

Barney Childs called the style of the majority of these works "new music."
Genre: Avant Garde: Atonal
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  Song Share Time Download
1. The Tracker/David Ward-Steinman
Phillip Rehfeldt & Barney Childs & David Ward-Steinman
11:06 $0.99
2. Three Occasions for Clarinet and Reader/William J. Sydeman
Phillip Rehfeldt & Barney Childs
12:30 $0.99
3. Four Songs from the Rubaiyt/William Penn
Phillip Rehfeldt & Barney Childs
7:51 $0.99
4. Reading Session for Clarinet and Piano/Readers/Elliott Schwartz
Phillip Rehfeldt & Barney Childs
10:06 $0.99
5. Psalm of These Days IV (Cl, Reader, Tape)/Edwin London
Phillip Rehfeldt & Barney Childs
11:09 $0.99
6. Echoes, For Clarinet and Tape/Olly Wilson
Phillip Rehfeldt
10:29 $0.99
7. Underworld (For Clarinet and Tape)/Glenn Hackbarth
Phillip Rehfeldt
11:37 $0.99
8. Three Pieces for Clarinet and Piano/David Maslanka
Phillip Rehfeldt & Barney Childs
14:50 $0.99
9. Phil's Float/Ron Pellegrino
Phillip Rehfeldt & Ron Pellegrino
9:01 $0.99
10. The Redlands Codex/Daniel Lentz (feat. Daniel Lentz)
Phillip Rehfeldt
2:53 $0.99
11. Sunshine Lunchh, & Like Matters (B. Cl & Reader)/Barney Childs
Phillip Rehfeldt & Barney Childs
15:57 $0.99
12. Antiphon II/Michael Horvit
Phillip Rehfeldt
10:08 $0.99
13. Spirit Puck for Clarinet and Percussion/Peter Racine Fricker
Phillip Rehfeldt & Bruce Andweson
6:48 $0.99
14. Ran. I.X. (Clarinet and Tape)/Victor Saucedo [feat. Victor Saucedo]
Phillip Rehfeldt
17:07 $0.99
15. Grande Fantasie De Concert/Barney Childs
Phillip Rehfeldt
4:50 $0.99
16. Monologue/Francisco Castillo
Phillip Rehfeldt
3:20 $0.99
17. Transcendental Etude / Larry Solomon
Phillip Rehfeldt
4:08 $0.99
18. Solitaire / Peter Winkler
Phillip Rehfeldt
3:47 $0.99
19. Trail Boss (Ridin’ Night Herd)/Victor Saucedo
Phillip Rehfeldt
2:58 $0.99
20. Mirrors for Barney and Arney/Elliott Schwartz
Phillip Rehfeldt
6:09 $0.99
21. Ornaments/Alexandra Pierce
Phillip Rehfeldt
3:55 $0.99
22. Devil’s Music/Burton Beerman
Phillip Rehfeldt
1:45 $0.99
23. Behind Sly Arc (1989)/Gino Robair Forlin
Phillip Rehfeldt
6:39 $0.99
24. Etude On the Name of Barney Childs (1989)/David Ward-Steinman
Phillip Rehfeldt
3:10 $0.99
25. Quick Foot Shaken/John Casken
Phillip Rehfeldt
2:50 $0.99
26. A Freeway Runs Through It/Phillip Rehfeldt
Phillip Rehfeldt
2:54 $0.99
27. Intonation/Scott Vance
Phillip Rehfeldt
4:40 $0.99
28. Pop’s New Jack Bag/Bob Clarida
Phillip Rehfeldt
2:37 $0.99
29. A Music, That It Might Be.... /Barney Childs (feat. Marty Walker)
Phillip Rehfeldt
11:07 $0.99
30. Barnard I / Barney Childs
Phillip Rehfeldt, Phillip Rehfeldt & Sally Rehfeldt
6:01 $0.99
31. Night Land / Barney Childs
Phillip Rehfeldt
5:43 $0.99
32. 7 Epigrams for Soprano and Clarinet / Barney Childs
Phillip Rehfeldt, Phillip Rehfledt & Stacy Fraser
7:57 $0.99
33. A Clarinet Piece / Barney Childs
Phillip Rehfeldt
9:26 $0.99
34. “sleep,” and Then Going On / Barney Childs
Phillip Rehfeldt
10:52 $0.99
35. Overture to Measuring a Meridian / Barney Childs
Phillip Rehfeldt, Kirk Sharp, Karlin Eby, John Steinmetz, James Rotter, Phillip Rehfeldt & Terry Row
13:28 $0.99
36. The New Improved Twelve Clarinet Fun Piece / B. Childs
Phillip Rehfeldt & Phillip Rehfeldt
5:23 $0.99
37. Solo Piece with Passacaglia / M. William Karlins
Phillip Rehfeldt & Phillip Rehfeldt
6:30 $0.99
38. Classic for Clarinet / Peter Griffith
Phillip Rehfeldt & Phillip Rehfeldt
8:24 $0.99
39. Sensations for Clarinet and Tape / Burton Beerman
Phillip Rehfeldt
7:15 $0.99
40. Two Pieces for Unaccompanied Clarinet / Elliot Borashansky
Phillip Rehfeldt & Phillip Rehfeldt
4:12 $0.99
41. A Set for Clarinet / Donald Martino
Phillip Rehfeldt
10:39 $0.99
42. Four Studies for Two Clarinets / Elliott Schwartz
Phillip Rehfeldt, Phillip Rehfeldt & John Gates
7:46 $0.99
43. Piece for Clarinet and Tape / Edward Miller
Phillip Rehfeldt, Phillip Rehfeldt & Edward Miller
5:08 $0.99
44. B, A, B, B, I T, T / Donald Martino
Phillip Rehfeldt
3:16 $0.99
45. Music for Oboe and B-Flat Clarinet / William Sydeman
Phillip Rehfeldt, Phillip Rehfeldt & Charles Veazey
12:42 $0.99
46. Sonatina for Clarinet Alone / Gerald Strang
Phillip Rehfeldt
4:55 $0.99
47. Showers of Blessings / Gerald Plain
Phillip Rehfeldt
10:53 $0.99
48. Voyage / Larry Johnson
Phillip Rehfeldt, Phillip Rehfeldt & Barney Childs
2:27 $0.99
49. Grand Guignols of Love, Clar and Reader / Meyer Kupferman
Phillip Rehfeldt, Phillip Rehfledt & Barney Childs
4:58 $0.99
50. Effetti Collaterali / James Dashow
Phillip Rehfeldt
10:41 $0.99
51. Le Tracce Di Kronos, I Passi / James Dashow
Phillip Rehfeldt
9:21 $0.99
52. The Unwanted Vacation (Bassoon & Sequencer)/Andy Rehfeldt
Phillip Rehfeldt
5:06 $0.99
53. Trio for Violin. Clarinet and Piano /David Cohen
Phillip Rehfeldt, Phillip Rehfeldt, Frank Spinoza & Walter Cosand
16:18 $0.99
54. Three Songs for Clarinet and Piano / David Ward-Steinman
Phillip Rehfeldt, Phillip Rehfledt & David Ward-Steinman
8:26 $0.99
55. Greetings!/William O. Smith
Phillip Rehfeldt
3:56 $0.99
56. The Dissolution of the Serial / Sydney Hodkinson (feat. Stephen Moore)
Phillip Rehfeldt & Phillip Rehfeldt
9:50 $0.99
57. Job 22:28/Alexandra Pierce
Phillip Rehfeldt, Phillip Rehfeldt & Marty Walker
14:48 $0.99
58. The Flexi-Disk in New Directions for Clarinet, 1st Ed / P. Rehfeldt
Phillip Rehfeldt
11:33 $0.99
Downloads are available as MP3-320 files.

ABOUT THIS ALBUM


Album Notes
The Redlands Codex: Program Notes
Phillip Rehfeldt and Barney Childs
Music for Clarinet and Friend; Festschrift for Barney Childs; Music of Barney Childs 3; New Music for Clarinet; Omnium Gatherum

Scott Vance, audio engineer


The Redlands Codex: Program Notes
Prepared by Phillip Rehfeldt

The Redlands Codex is a set of 58 recordings that represent the work of clarinetist (and sometimes-player of other woodwind instruments) Phillip Rehfeldt, composer Barney Childs, and audio technician Scott Vance, colleagues together at the University of Redlands from the early 1970s to the mid 1990s. The organization is in five parts: (1) the Childs and Rehfeldt commissioning-series New Music for Clarinet and Friend [Tracks 1-14]; (2) the commissioning series Etudes for the 21st-Century Clarinetist: a Festschrift for Barney Childs on the Occasion of His 50th Birthday from his friends and former students [Tracks 15-28]; (3) Music of Barney Childs #3 [Tracks 29-36]; (4) Rehfeldt’s recordings New Music for Clarinet, Advance Recordings FGR 15S and 17S (1972 and 1973) [Tracks 37-47]; and (5) Omnium-Gatherum (other recordings and performances) [Tracks 48-58].

Some of the works have been newly recorded; however, the majority have been re-mastered to today’s standards from original master tapes and vinyl recordings, now out of print. Earlier audio engineers include Marty Walker, Jim Fox, Jon Usher and Jeffery Rickard.

Part 1: NEW MUSIC FOR CLARINET AND FRIEND [Tracks 1-14] is a total collection of thirty-two works, and including performances and recordings, commissioned especially for and by composer Barney Childs and clarinetist Phillip Rehfeldt. It was supported, from 1974 to 1988, by a series of Summer-Research Grants from the Faculty-Research Committee of the University of Redlands and a performance grant form the National Endowment for the Arts. “Accompaniments” and formats range, in various combinations, from piano, reader, video, percussion, synthesizer, electronics (tapes), to theater and wall hangings. Barney died in 2000; his music, as well as scores for the “Clarinet and Friend” series, is housed in Armacost Library at the University of Redlands. The tracks below have been re-mastered from Advance Recordings 29S and 81; CRI SD 438 and 367, and Grenadilla GS 1017. The performers and Barney Childs and Phillip Rehfeldt unless otherwise noted.

Track 1 (11:04)
The Tracker (1976)/David Ward-Steinman “is scored for clarinet, fortified piano, and pre-recorded tape. The tape part consists of processed readings of a poem written and recited by Barney Childs and processed recordings of clarinet multiphonics by Phillip Rehfeldt which are ring-modulated, filtered, and collaged in various ways. No other sound sources are used. The live clarinet and fortified piano are both frame and counterpoint to the tape, with much interaction among all parts. The piano is fortified with rubber wedges, dimes, a clave, and some screws and bolts. In addition, the pianist (and clarinetist) perform directly on the strings and dampers with rubber mallets, fingers, and fingernails. The notation is mostly specific, partly indeterminate. Contour notation and improvisation options permit a certain elasticity within the score, but the overall shape and content is controlled by the composer.” DWS
In addition to multiphonics, there is a solo for mouthpiece alone, as well as glissandi, trilled glissandi, and quarter-tone trills. David Ward-Steinman is pianist for this performance. Childs is the page turner; his “live” voice is heard reciting parts of the poem.

David Ward-Steinman is Emeritus-Composer-In-Residence and Professor of Music at San Diego State University and Indiana University. He has received numerous prizes, awards, and honors for his compositions. His teachers include Babbitt, Milhaud, Riegger, and Boulanger.

Track 2 (12:28)
Three Occasions for clarinet and reader (1984)/William J. Sydeman. The Material (Julia Conner Baldwin)
A Memorable Fancy (William Blake) The Initiation of Ahbleza (Ruth Beebe Hill)
Adagio Fugue I Etude Fugue II Dance of Self Acknowledgment
“Julia Baldwin’s Material is a sort of introduction to poetics--but is so poetic itself as to inspire me to music. Blake’s Memorable Fancy from his Marriage of Heaven and Hell could be seen as ironic--but I don t think so--it seems a strong plea for flexibility and personal freedom. Ahbleza s initiation is an Indian ritual of initiation into the highest mysteries--the finding of oneself in God and God in oneself. The music (hopefully) surrounds and deepens these thoughts.” WJS
William Sydeman is a prolific, prestigious-award-winning, New-York composer primarily of orchestral and chamber music. He now lives in northern California.

Track 3 (7:49)
Four Songs from the Rubaiyt (1974)/William Penn. Here-recorded are four of the original Nine Songs from the Rubaiyat (of Omar Khayyam, tr. Fitzgerald). “They contrast lyric expressive clarinet lines with a variety of evocative piano sonorities, these including amplification by Echoplex as well as playing on stopped strings, plucking the strings directly, and rolling hard rubber balls on the strings. The individual songs may be performed in whichever order the performers please.” WP

William Penn studied composition with Pousseur, Kagel and Sapp at SUNY Buffalo, and Reed and Harder at Michigan State (from whence he received the doctorate). He has taught at Eastman and The University of Arizona.

Track 4 (10:04)
Reading Session for clarinet/reader and piano/reader (1983)/Elliott Schwartz “assumes the existence of three performing forces--clarinet, piano, and narrated words--which are given equal prominence and textural weight. (Both performers share in the creation of the verbal level.) Much of the narration is chosen by the players, but a substantial--and important--portion (deriving from a well-known John Cage quotation) is specified in the score.

The work is conceived as a set of variations. Its opening section, or ‘theme,’ introduces the basic gestures (and 12-tone vocabulary), as well as the Cage quotation: I HAVE NOTHING TO SAY AND I AM SAYING IT AND THAT IS POETRY. Both verbal and musical materials are fragmented and transformed in the variations which follow. Thanks to the poet Edwin Morgan for the re-groupings of Cage’s words.” ES

Track 5 (11:07)
Psalm of These Days IV for clarinet, reader, and tape (1978)/Edwin London “is a cycle of five works written between 1976 and 1980) for various combinations, approaches, dispositions, and colorations of voices and instruments. Utilizing biblical texts, but loosely inspired, also, by ideas drawn from a reading of William James’ The Varieties of Religious Experience, this network of compositions tries to render, with (one hopes) some irony apparent, a series of religious postures either experienced and/or observed by the composer in a picaresque hejira through and to sundry spiritual states of sorts (from Once-Born Kazoo, Mass. in EVenTs of sham pain, ill and all, as well as Philly Childs-play mantra on the fly to the resurrected vocal bands of Believeland, Oh.--CLAP CLAP.)

Psalm of These Days IV, coming as it does after the turbulence of the cycle’s centerpiece, sets about forming an aura of meditation. The performers are awarded a grand degree of freedom in establishing the extent to which they commit themselves spiritually and/or or musically. Also, the work acts as bridge to the eventual descent back to the ‘public domain’ described in the concluding segment, Psalm of These Days V.” EL

The work consists of a realization of a sheet of suggestions accompanied by a tape provided by the composer. The reader, may, it is suggested, translate the Psalm (47:6) into other tongues and dialects to which Scripture has been translated, in this case, a live performance from 1988, Childs recites sixteen languages other than English. The tape is “manipulated” by University of Redlands Audio Engineer, Scott Vance. The clarinet, instructed to “strike and accord” with the tape, uses random-finger combinations throughout, and circular breathing.

Edwin London has taught at Smith College, The University of Illinois, and, as chairperson of the department of music, Cleveland State University. He studied with P.G.Clapp, Philip Bezanson, Luigi Dallapiccola and Darius Milhaud.

Track 6 (10:29)
Echoes, for clarinet and tape (1974)/Olly Wilson “is based on a continuous interaction between the clarinet and the electronic sound source which share common pitches, timbres, and musical gestures, while simultaneously developing a larger musical shape. The work contains three organically related sections which gradually evolve from one to the other in one continuous movement. The entire tape portion was generated electronically at the University of California Berkeley Electronic Music Studio. Commissioned by Drs. Childs and Rehfeldt for the series New Music for clarinet and Friend, the work has also been recorded by Phillip Rehfeldt on the CRI label.” OW

A leading proponent of African/American styles, Olly Wilson’s teachers include Robert Wykes, Robert Kelly and Phillip Bezanson. He is Emeritus Professor of Music and former Chairman of the Department at UC Berkeley.

Track 7 (11:35)
Underworld (For clarinet and tape)(1984, 1989)/Glenn Hackbarth “uses text segments drawn from the Cocteau film Orphée. Primarily phrases of abstract poetry, these are sent to Orphée from the underworld by the dead poet Cégeste and broadcast to Orphée on the radio of a Rolls Royce. The remainder of the tape consists primarily of manipulated piano-interior sounds with some synthesized sound as reinforcement.” GH

Glenn Hackbarth teaches on the faculty of Arizona State University in Tempe. He holds a doctorate in composition from The University of Illinois.

Track 8 (11:49)
Three Pieces for Clarinet and Piano (1975)/David Maslanka “are thoroughly contrastive in mood and pace, the first one working through the supple and complex interweaving of melodic material in a variety of rhythmic cross-relations, and the outgoing lyricism of the third piece moving gradually into a thinner, more diatonic, and highly evocative dissolving conclusion. Detailed vertical relationships between the parts are not vital in the aggressive and powerful middle piece; each performer executes his highly demanding material almost completely independent of the other.” DM

David Maslanka attended the Oberlin Conservatory and Michigan State University, receiving from the latter both the M.M. and Ph.D. degrees. He has taught at the State University of New York and at Sarah Lawrence. He has received numerous composition awards and fellowships.

Track 9 (9:00)
Phil s Float (1974)/Ron Pellegrino “is designed to be performed either by clarinet alone, with clarinet and synthesizer, with clarinet and a special tape that was prepared in real time by the composer, with clarinet and film, or combinations of the above. Synchronization of the various parts, although sometimes specified, is for the most part flexible according to the flow of music. The film was made using Lissajou figures.” RP The present version uses a tape prepared by the composer.

Ron Pellegrino took composition degrees from Lawrence University (B.M.) and the University of Wisconsin (M.M. and Ph.D.).While on the faculties of Ohio State University and Oberlin Conservatory he developed and propagated the idea of real-time composition in multimedia events including electronic and acoustic music, lasers, film, video, body movement, etc. Since 1972, as a free-lance composer/performer based in the Bay Area of California and North Texas, he has presented solo and collaborative events throughout North America, Europe, and South America.

Track 10 (2:52)
The Redlands Codex (1977)/Daniel Lentz. “Presented as two wall hangings, The Redlands Codex (Barney’ s “Clasula” and “Phil’ s Gymel”), for unspecified wind and keyboard instrument, was written in Medieval style and is pure in form.” DL

Daniel Lentz is a freelance composer residing in Santa Barbara. He teaches/has taught at UCSB and, at Arizona State West in Phoenix.

Track 11 (15:58)
Sunshine lunchh, & like matters (1983)/Barney Childs. “The texts for Sunshine lunchh, & like matters (for bass clarinet and reader/percussionist) are to be chosen by the reader/percussionist. The present version includes poems by John Newlove, Yvor Winters, and my students Jon Arakaki and Gabe Arquilevich, and a number of prose citations that I thought workable. The closing vocal passage is directly from Edward German’s setting (1902) of the Kipling poem. As for the title, I‘ve always been pleased by the doubling of “h” in the orthography of certain Asian languages. And who doesn’t enjoy an outdoor lunch? As an epigraph, there is a line from Charles Darwin: ‘My mind was a chaos of delight.’” BC

Track 12 (10:08)
Antiphon II (1974)/Michael Horvit “was written for Phillip Rehfeldt and Barney Childs. It is the second on a series of works which combine solo performances with electronic tape, others being for saxophone, piano, violin, organ and marimba. The work is in two movements: Atmospheres and Moto Perpetuo. It is based upon a twelve-tone row but is freely tonal, particularly the jazzy second movement. Atmospheres, as its tile implies, is concerned primarily with color. It opens with the row presented polyphonically on the tape alone. A dialogue follows between the tape and the clarinet during which they respond to each other, first the clarinet, then the tape, leading the way. Out of this grows a highly ‘atmospheric’ section, arching higher and higher until the uppermost limits of the tessitura are reached. After remaining on this plateau for a moderate span, the music gradually descends returning to a brief restatement of the opening material. Molto Perpetuo is built around a rhythmic ostinato. Jazzy in style, the clarinet and tape take turns with soloistic ‘rides.’” MH

Track 13 (6:46)
Spirit Puck for clarinet and percussion (1974)/Peter Racine Fricker. “This miniature
tone poem is conceived as a portrait of the character from Shakespeare’s A Midsummer Night’s 7
Dream, and is constructed in a free rondo form, with extremely varied tempos and dynamics. Puck is an excitable, vivid individual, volatile and quick-moving, but also given to meditation, and this piece reflects all these aspects of his nature.” PRF
Bruce Anderson, percussionist.

Track 14 (17:05)
Ran. I.X. (clarinet and tape) (1976)/Victor Saucedo. “An algorithm was used to generate musical processes and a score on the IBM 360 computer at Southwestern College. The first part of the title, RAN, refers to the random number generator used in a subroutine to define parameters, i.e., rhythms, modes of execution, dynamics, etc. Limited dimensions were placed on the parameters and specific distribution curves applied to insure compatible melodic contours, rhythms, and dynamics between the final computer composition and the clarinet.

I.X., a variable name for the values that are transferred from the subroutine to the main program, initiates distinct random number generation sequences. As the value of I.X. changes so does the random number sequence and subsequently the parameter definition, i.e., the general outline of the composition. The program, with the set values for I.X., then, is the essence of the clarinet part.

The outer portions of the composition were realized on two sound-generating systems. Tape sections 1, 4, and 6 were realized at the Artificial Intelligence Lab at Stanford University utilizing the Music System MUS 10 and a PDP 10 computer. Section 6 makes use of ‘foldover’ as a compositional device. By creating a sum of sines of up to 20 partials and applying these wave forms to fundamentals in the high frequency range, the ‘foldover’ effect results, whereby the higher partials turn around about 5000Hz., thus creating complex spectra. Although they were not part of the computer program, clarinet muliphonics (chords) emulate these distinct timbral qualities.

The middle tape cadenza was realized primarily on the Arp 2600 Synthesizer. The remaining tape sections were realized at the Center for Music Experiment using the Timbre Tuning System and a PDP 11 computer. Sections 2, 3, and 11 make use of random-note generation and complement the random notes generated by the IBM 360/22 for the acoustical instrument. The clarinet-like computer generated sounds at the end of the composition were computed first on the IBM 360, according to the above mentioned algorithm. The resultant score was then transcribed for clarinet and the Timbre Tuning System. One computer was used for parameter definition, and the other for the realization.

In this music the ‘dynamic rhythm’ and reiterative melodic concepts of Amerindian music have been diametrically transformed and modulated as complements. The result is a duality similar to the duality concept of clarinet multiphonics versus computer multiphonics, or clarinet random notes versus computer random notes, or even the idea itself of using an advanced technique such as the computer to generate primitive concepts associated with mystic ritual.” VS

[N.B.] Additional works in the series, not recorded here, are: Warren Benson, Prelude and Postlude (1989); Marshall Bialosky,Tetra-Music (1982); Harold Budd, In Delius’ Sleep (1974); Stephen Chatman, Gossamer Leaves (1981); Tom Cleman, For Clarinet and Piano (1974); Paul Cochran, Drone Fantasy (1974); David Cohen, Ceremony (1981); Christopher Hobbs, Rites of Passage (1982); Jonathan Kramer, Renasence (1974); Wendell Logan, Duo Exchanges (1976); Alexandra Pierce, Buffalo Bill (1978); John Donald Robb, Triangulum (1978); Michael Sahl, Memorial (1978); William O. Smith, Soliloquy; Larry Solomon, The Great Learning (1988); and John Steinmetz, Odiepundle VI (1980).

Part 2: Etudes for the 21st-Century Clarinetist: a Festschrift for Barney Childs on the Occasion of His 50th Birthday from his friends and former students, compiled and edited by Phillip Rehfeldt, MillCreekPublications/Advance Recordings, 1990/1992. Phillip Rehfeldt, clarinet. [Tracks 15-28]

Virtually all of today’s clarinet techniques are represented: circular breathing, multiphonics, covered sounds, microtones, speaking/reading, humming while playing, throat growls, color fingerings, glissando, flutter tongue, harmonics, “ghost” tonguing, and key clicks. The collection begins with the submission by Barney Childs; however, that it was to be in his honor was kept as a surprise. The following fourteen pieces are re-mastered from the double-cassette recording of all of the submissions: MillCreekPublications/Advance Recordings.

Track 15 (4:48)
Grande Fantasie de Concert (Masters of the Game) (1990)/Barney Childs “is concerned mainly with expressive articulation of a line in complex rhythmic relationships. These must be performed with precision and accuracy, no rubato or fudging. The overall idea of the piece was to produce a compacted (and as such perhaps parodistic) version of those silly concours pieces that every clarinetist eventually bumps into; just as they include sections dealing with What You Should Be Able To Play, so here: some high speed fingers licks, some altissimo, a repeated notes bit, microtones, the odd problem here and there.... The work is ‘in memoriam’ Charles Whittenberg.” BC

Track 16 (3:18)
Monologue (1990)/Francisco Castillo. Castillo’s compositions have been performed in South America, Central America, North America and Europe. He performs as an oboist extensively in Southern California and teaches oboe on the faculty of the University of Redlands.

Track 17 (4:06)
Transcendental Etude (1989)/Larry Solomon. “The work deals with intermingled layers of pitch repetitions, often at individual dynamic levels and soft sounds (breath sounds, key clicks, long sustained pitches, and so forth).... (As Dad once said, ‘where there’s a will, there’s a way.’ )” LS

Larry Solomon teaches at Pima Community College in Tucson, Arizona, and has too many interests, the greatest of which in music. Others include solitude, gourmet food, Indonesia, reading non-fiction, substantive conversation, fossils, swimming, and finding the quietest place on earth.

Track 18 (3:45)
Solitaire (1989)/Peter Winkler. “This is a study in evoking a style--or perhaps the memory of a style. The inspiration was the wailing, soulful, flamboyant sound of the great old jazz clarinetists, such as Sidney Bechet, Jimmy Noone, and Barney Bigard. Since the piece is unaccompanied, the situation might suggest that one is remembering one of those good old slow dance tunes, running over the melody and riffs in one’s head, hearing it against a solid, relaxed 4/4 beat in an imaginary rhythm section.” PW

There are two voices: “1) bright, bluesy, intense, with slow glissandi and slow bends up to notes; 2) in low register, very breathy, with a slow, sensuous vibrato. Smoky.” The clarinet used in the present performance was made by George Bundy in Paris before Henri Selmer brought him to the United States (in 1911) to develop the well-known line of durable student instruments bearing his name.

Track 19 (2:56)
Trail Boss (Ridin’ Night Herd) (1989)/Victor Saucedo. “The title refers to trail bosses on long cattle drives in the Southwest. Not only were they the leaders but chose the men, and guided the whole operation. The toughest job during the drives was riding night herd; many things could and did go wrong during the dark hours: storms, wind, snow, cold, tired, lonesome, strays, very miserable, etc. Life is a drive of sorts. I’m glad I could accompany you and Barney on this one.” VS
The work is structurally complex. For example, line one begins with the initials B.C.; line two, Saucedo (sol si do); line three, a melisma on the name Barney; line five, the BACH theme, but not Bach, rather BA(rney)CH(ilds) (transposed, etc.); line seven to the end, a long pes theme over which the clarinet unfolds (modulations, discrete isolated notes plus free flowing rhythm). A four-page detailed explanation is provided in the printed edition.

Victor Saucedo (Tecayehuatzin) lives in Chula Vista (California) where he teaches theory and composition at Southwestern College. His teachers include Boris Kremenliev, Roy Harris, and Karlheinz Stockhausen.

Track 20 (6:07)
Mirrors for Barney and Arney (1989)/Elliott Schwartz. “BARNEY = B. Childs, eminent American composer and essayist; Professor of Music at the University of Redlands. ARNEY = A. Schoenberg, eminent Austrian composer who, like Barney, was basically self-taught, and, like Barney, found his way to Southern California; according to Oscar Levant, at a Hollywood ASCAP banquet someone sitting next to Schoenberg turned to him and said, ‘Arnie, I dunno who you are, but if you’re here ya gotta be good.’

This piece uses Schoenberg’s row for Tonal oder Atonal, with a change in the form and/or manipulation of the row occurring each minute. The player makes a tape. In performance the clarinetist plays from the upper stave, responding to and interacting with his/her alter ego on tape.” ES

Elliott Schwartz studied music with Otto Luening and Jack Beeson at Columbia University. Since 1964 he has taught at Bowdoin College (Maine), and currently holds professorships at both Bowdoin and The Ohio State University School of Music.

Track 21 (3:53)
Ornaments (1989)/Alexandra Pierce. Ornaments include measured vibrato, flutter tongue, trills and tremolos, multiphonics, rapid tonguing, and hum and play.

Alexandra Pierce, composer-performer and movement artist, holds the Ph.D. degree in theory and composition from Brandeis University, and M.A. in music from Harvard, and M.Mus. from the New England Conservatory, and a B.Mus. from The University of Michigan. She is Emeritus Professor of Music and Movement at the University of Redlands.

Track 22 (1:49)
Devil’s Music (1989)/Burton Beerman is one of four movements in the Festschrift under the title “Evening Songs.”
Burton Beerman is Professor of Music and History at Bowling Green State University and Director of the University’s Electronic Music and Recording Studios. As a composer he is known for the integration of interactive video, electric clarinet and dance. He is a graduate of Florida State University and The University of Michigan, from which he has a D.M.A. in composition.

Track 23 (6:37)
Behind Sly Arc (1989)/Gino Robair Forlin “is an etude in circular breathing on the clarinet. The performance should be one long, smooth, legato gesture. Each bar is repeated 3 to 13 times. Phrasing and dynamics are left up to the performer, but there should always be a clean transition from one bar to the next. In a multiple performance, the players may be in or out of sync with each other.” GRF

The present version is a multi-track performance by Phillip Rehfeldt. The title is a re-arrangement of letters in the dedicatory name.

Gino Robair Forlin, composer, percussionist, and manicurist, works and resides in the San Francisco Bay Area. He divides his time between ensembles such as The Splatter Trio and The Potato Eaters, as well as managing the Rastascan record label. He is a 1985 graduate of the University of Redlands.

Track 24 (3:10)
Etude on the Name of Barney Childs (1989)/David Ward-Steinman uses multiphonics (on the non-musical letters of Childs’ name), key clicks, and “ghost” tonguing; and cites the composer s own works involving Childs: The Tracker (recorded above [Track #1]} and Childs Play for bassoon and piano.

David Ward-Steinman is professor of music emeritus and composer-in-residence at San Diego State University, and adjunct professor of music at Indiana University. He has studied composition with Keller, Boda, Riegger, Milhaud, Babbitt, Boulanger, and Phillips.

Track 25 (2:52)
Quick foot shaken (1991)/John Casken (for A clarinet) “is a re-working for solo clarinet of a very short ensemble piece called Quick Feet Shaking (for clarinet, tenor saxophone, marimba, and piano).” JC

John Casken studied at Birmingham University (England) with Bovrowolski and Lutoslawski in Warsaw. He has been lecturer at Birmingham University, Huddersfield Polytechnic and, currently, Durham University.

Track 26 (2:52)
A Freeway Runs Through It (1994)/Phillip Rehfeldt, for bassoon and tape, “is comprised primarily of pre-existing material: a previous recording of a clarinet articulation study (Passacaglia and Multiphonics, from the Childs Festschrift), a section from my 1972 recording of Gerald Plain’s Showers of Blessings, and live bassoon ‘licks’ from David Ward-Steinman’s pioneering Childs Play for bassoon and piano (1974). The coda, preceded by a quarter-tone ‘chromatic’ scale, is a 5.3 aftershock of the 1992 Big Bear earthquake taken during a recording session in the University of Redlands Chapel. The title is inspired by the the view from my house on Crown Street in Redlands. The bassoon is a sort-of contradictory character.” PR

Track 27 (4:38)
Intonation (1989)/Scott Vance “requires a microphone, volume pedal, digital reverb processor, and a sound reinforcement system. Play the pitch. When the pitch and timbre are right, inject it into the processor. Listen to the result. Select a pitch from the alternate box in the score and repeat.” SV

Scott Vance has been University Audio Engineer and adjunct instructor in music technology at the University of Redlands and is now a freelance recording technician at San Bernardino State University and Norco College. A holder of B.M. and M.M. degrees in clarinet at the University of Redlands, he is a founding member for the Anything Goes Örchestra and a longtime member of the Redlands New Music Ensemble.

Track 28 (2:35)
Pop’s New Jack Bag (1989)/Bob Clarida “is for B-flat, E-flat, A, and/or contrabass clarinet(s), singly or in any combination. To be played at one of two tempos, quarter = 120 [45 RPM] or quarter = 96 [33RPM]), with or without the accompanying cassette.” BC
With permission of the composer, the present “45” version combines overdubed woodwinds (flute, oboe, clarinet, saxophone, bassoon); and clarinet alone on the fast version.

Clarida holds an M.M. degree in composition from the University of Redlands and D.M.A. from State University of New York, Stony Brook. He is currently a practicing lawyer in New York City, specializing in copyright.

Part 3: Music of Barney Childs #3 [Tracks 29-36] ].

BARNEY CHILDS (1926-2000) was born in Spokane, Washington. He earned a B.A. from the University of Nevada, a B.A. and M.A. in English language and literature as a Rhodes Scholar at Oxford University; and a Ph.D in English and music from Stanford University. His dissertation topic was The Setting of Poetry in the English Madrigal, with an edition of The Teares or Lamentacions of a Sorrowfull Soule. As a composer, he was largely self-taught until the early 1950s when he studied with Carlos Chávez, Aaron Copland and Elliott Carter. His teaching positions include those with the English department at the University of Arizona; as dean of Deep Springs College; as composer in residence at the Wisconsin College Conservatory, Milwaukee; and with Johnston College and the College of Arts and Sciences at the University of Redlands, teaching poetry and music. He was active as a poetry editor of Genesis West magazine, co-editor (with Bert Turetzky) of The New Instrumentation book series (University of California Press), co-founder of Advance Recordings, an associate editor for Perspectives of New Music, director of new music ensembles in Arizona, Wisconsin and California, and as a performing participant (with Phillip Rehfeldt) in the commissioning series “New Music for Clarinet and Friend.” He is co-editor (with Elliott Schwartz) of the book Contemporary Composers on Contemporary Music (1967, 1998). He left behind approximately 160 compositions in almost all genres and styles, approximately 23 articles in a variety journals and encyclopedias, and a poetry text, The Poetry-I Book, and a small collection of his own poems.

“I enjoy putting together what appear to me to work in context as good sounds, especially for performers who have asked me for pieces. I use whatever compositional means seem suitable for the occasion. Almost anything may be drawn upon if I can make it work right, although I’m not at ease with much of the present-day concern for systems and philosophies. By the circumstance of having lived much of my life in nonmetropolitan parts of the American West, by not studying composition formally until my early twenties, and, when I did study, by working with New World composers, I have had no interest in the international music scene and its directions and stances, and the attendant polemics seemingly required. I m not trying to prove anything.
Dane Rudhyar says somewhere that music is either talking music or dancing music. Most of what l write is probably the former, I’m most at ease composing for solo instrument or small ensemble, despite the occasional big work. The music usually affirms declamatory and lyric lines, drawing upon whatever stylistic influences as seem workable in terms of available resources: new instrumentation sonorities, Ayler-and-after jazz, assembling and disassembling motives, surprise silences and repetition, varia ble and often gestural textures and rhythms, performer speech, virtuoso passages. Form, says poet Robert Creeley, is what happens. I have drawn upon indeterminacy since 1961 in various approaches for many works.” BC

[N.B.] “Music of Barney Childs #1” is Barney Childs, A MUSIC, THAT IT MIGHT BE.... Phillip Rehfeldt, woodwinds, available from New World Records, 80595-2, 2002. Contents: Take 5 (1962, Any Five instruments:[flute, clarinet, bass clarinet, saxophone, and bassoon]); A music; that is might be..... (1973, two Bb and A clarinets), Grande Fantasie de Concert (Masters of the Game) (1990, solo clarinet), London Rice Wine (1973, any solo wind instrument [flute and electronics]); Pastorale (1983, bass clarinet and prepared tape); Instant Winners (1986, solo Eb clarinet); Changes for Three Oboes (1959); Quartet for Bassoons (1959); The Golden Bubble (1967, Eb-contrabass sarrusophone and solo percussion); Variation on Night River Music (1969, Marco Schindleman, reader). “Music of Barney Childs #2: is also available from New World Records, 2016. Contents: Heaven to clear when day did close (1980, solo piano); Sonata for Solo Clarinet (1950); Stances for Flute and Silence (1963, solo flute); Real music (1981, two clarinets); 37 Songs (1971, solo piano); Music for Contrabass and Friend (1964, clarinet and contrabass); Music for Bass Drum (1964, bass drum, three players); Any Five (1965, woodwinds, contrabass, percussion, piano).

Music of Barney Childs #3

Track 29 (11:05)
A Music, that it might be.... (1973), a work “in memoriam to a dear friend of the composer, was written for and premiered by Drs. Phillip Rehfeldt and F. Gerard Errante at the first International Clarinet Clinic in Denver, 1973. The work’s five movements reflect the composer’s concern with musical structures other than the usual introduction - development - denouement - conclusion curve so endemic in Western art; the second movement contrasts light and dark as represented each by one instrumental part; the third movement moves to conclusion through an isorhythmic canon; and the concluding movement, whose material has appeared briefly previously, is a kind of suspended benediction. Micro- and color tones are used throughout as part of the expressive rhetoric, and during the entire brief and somber fourth movement the instruments are tuned a quarter-tone apart.” BC

Performers are Martin Walker and Phillip Rehfeldt. Re-mastered from Zanja Records ZR-2, 1978.

Track 30 (5:59)
Barnard I (1968) “is a wedding present promised to Phil and Sally Rehfeldt in 1961; since it was written in 1968 (during my summer at the MacDowell Colony, in Barnard Studio) their patience is as exemplary as my sloth. The work is in five short continuous movements, each exploring particular musical (mostly sonorous) ideas. Since most of these ideas approach the minimal, the music is peeled down, all out in the open. The final ‘movement,’ of almost inaudible sounds, is ordered by each player as he pleases during the performance.” BC

Performers are Phillip and Sally Rehfeldt. Re-mastered from Advance Recordings FGR-17S, 1973.

Track 31 (5:41)
Night Land (1955), for flute solo, includes the following poem--which also serves as program notes. Each of the six lines in each stanza scans thirteen and the last half-lines scan seven and six. Childs’ “lucky” number was thirteen (born on February 13 (Friday). This number is followed in the phrase structure of the flute part on the first page, but not on the final pages. One of the comments that Childs used often regarding his music was that “the musicologists will have trouble with this one....” The work also uses quarter tones and harmonics (“false fingerings’), as well as odd meters--not common in 1955. In his poetry book he recommends that poems are meant to be read aloud; his “The Tracker” can be heard/Childs reading as used by David Ward-Steinman on Track 1 (above). Phillip Rehfeldt, flute/reader.

“While sitting in the sleepy warmth and light of a chair car in
the Boston station after midnight on a cold November night in
1954, I saw on the next track a Pullman car called Night Land
This name was immediately evocative to me of all I have
associated with the night, and since that time circumstances
have occasionally brought this back to me, and ideas for a piece
of music began to come with it.

The present piece is not to be considered programmatic, as
‘portraying’ or duplicating any actual night sounds. It is
rather an idea of a small part of the perpetual single line
of music which one may imagine plays always just beyond
hearing in the night, in all nights, somewhere, everywhere
out of the darkness just beyond the reach of man and his
world, sensed rather than heard.”
Barney Childs
Los Angeles
October 1955

Track 32 (7:55)
7 Epigrams for soprano and clarinet (1955). The poems, by Robert Herrick (1591-1674), are as follows:

I. Dreames
Here we are all, by day; By night w’are hurled
By dreames, each one, into a sev’rall world.

2, Upon Bunce
Mony thou ow’st me; Prethee fix a day
For payment promis’d, though thou never pay;
Let it be Doomesday; nay, take longer scope;
Pay when th art honest; let me have some hope.

3. Upon Cuffe
Cuffe comes to Church much: but he keeps his bed
Those Sundayes onely, when as Briefs are read.
This makes Cuffe dull; and troubles him the most,
Because he cannot sleep i’ the Church, free-cost.

4. The Meane
Imparitie doth ever discord bring:
The Mean the Musicque makes in every thing.

5. Great boast, small rost
Of Flanks and Chines of Beefe doth Gorrell boast
He has at home; but who tasts boil’d or rost?
Look in his Brine-tub, and you shall find there
Two stiffe-blew-Pigs-feet, and a sow’s cleft eare.

6. Upon Batt
Batt he gets children, not for love to reare ‘em:
But out of hope his wife might die to beare ‘em.

7. His wish
It is sufficient if we pray
To Jove, who gives, and takes away.
Let him the Land and Living finde;
Leave me alone to fit the mind.

As in Night Land (above) the scanning of the texts--10, 9, 10, 10,10, 10, and 8--is reflected in the phrase structure of the clarinet lines, sometimes precisely, as in #1, and nearly precisely, as in #7, which uses eight throughout except for the last five.

Stacey Fraser, Associate Professor of Music, California State University, San Bernardino, soprano; Phillip Rehfeldt, clarinet.

Track 33 (9:24)
A clarinet piece (1978) was composed for Phillip Rehfeldt (and inscribed as well to his pupils and Gerry Errante). “The work is made up of a number of separate parts; the performer arranges these in any order he may choose for a specific occasion. Pauses between the parts are timed so that the composition gives the impression of something between a long single movement in sections and an undisclosed group of related parts which are not quite movements.” Phillip Rehfeldt, clarinet.

Track 34 (10:52)
“Sleep,” and then going on (1980) “is a fantasia-like development of the melodic line of the first stanza of Peter Warlock’s song Sleep which is stated at the beginning. The solo player must also handle two suspended cymbals. This clarinet work lies mostly in the lower register of the instrument. In addition there are some special effects. It was commissioned by a strong college clarinetist for a senior recital.”

(Peter Warlock [1894-1930] was an English composer and musicologist who, although he consorted with modernists, stylistically preferred the Elizabethan era, and many of his songs use texts from this time. The poem “Sleep” was written by playwrite John Fletcher and appeared in his play The Woman Hater in 1606. The text here describes sleep as a balm for life’s annoyances and suffering. Warlock whose own life ended through a self-induced sleep, wrote his song in the early 1920’s)

Track 35 (13:26)
Overture to Measuring a Meridian (1978) was written during Childs’ stay at the MacDowell Colony in New Hampshire. The title is that of a book that he found in the Colony library. Performers are members of the “Faculty Wind Quintet/Sextet of the University of Redlands”: Karlin Eby (Coolidge), alto flute; Terry Row, oboe; Phillip Rehfeldt, “A” clarinet; John Steinmetz, bassoon; James Keays, horn; James Rötter, alto saxophone; and Kirk Sharp, percussion. The percussion part, also published separately (Seven Quiet Studies, Smith Publications) plays continuously throughout; the wind players each have one solo. The recording is from a 1979 live performance at Armacost Library on the University campus.

Track 36 (5:21)
The New Improved Summer Music Clinic Everybody Play Twelve Clarinet Fun Piece (1977) “is brief (five minutes), sonorous and largely modal; the gamut of competence required varies from difficult parts for the first players down to fairly easy parts for the last desks. Much of the music is based on a drowsy, two-note ostinato. Counting is a little tricky, and all players must stay awake; a sympathetic conductor will help. All twelve parts are for the Bb instrument.” BC

In the present recording, Phillip Rehfeldt is overdubing all twelve parts; the audio engineer is Andy Rehfeldt.

Part 4: New Music for Clarinet (Advance Recordings FGR 15S and 17S) (1972, 1973) [Tracks 45-55]. The Karlins work is published by Autograph Editions (New York); the Beerman and Borishansky works are published by Media Press; the Martino Set is published by McGinnis & Marx; the Schwartz Studies are published by General Music Publishing Company; the Miller and Strang works are available from American Composers Alliance; the Martino B, a, b, b, it, t is published by Ione Press; the Sydeman by Southern Music.

Track 37 (6:28)
Solo Piece with Passacaglia (1964)/M. William Karlins “is essentially in variation form. The first section, sub-titled ‘Outgrowths’ --a term intended in a more subtle sense than ‘variations’ to indicate sections growing out of previous sections--consists of four contiguous variations, followed by a middle section marked ‘as fast as possible.’ The final section also consists of four consecutive variations on the passacaglia theme. Throughout the work, the octave placement of the pitches is carefully controlled; e.g., in the first area, all E flats are positioned on the fourth space; in the second area, on the third ledger line above the staff, etc. The high B, sounding before the ‘as fast as possible’ section, is the 12th note to be introduced into the piece.” WK

M. William Karlins (born in 1932 in New York City) began by composing jazz arrangements (from c. 1946 to 1951). He received an M.M. degree from the Manhattan School of Music and the Ph.D from the University of Iowa. Beginning in 1965, he taught for two years at Western Illinois University and, in 1967, became associate professor of theory and composition at Northwestern University, where he also directs the Contemporary Music Ensemble. His teachers have been Frederick Piket, Stefan Wolpe, Gunther Schuller, Vittorio Giannini, Phillip Bezanson, and Richard Hervig. At the Bennington Composers Conference and the Princeton Seminar in Advanced Musical Studies he has worked with (among others) Roger Goeb, Lester Trimble, Milton Babbitt, Karl-Birger Blomdahl, Elliott Carter, Earl Kim, and Roger Sessions.

Track 38 (6:22)
Classic for Clarinet (1969)/Peter Griffith, although also intended as a work for clarinet alone, was originally designed for accompaniment with a laser beam apparatus which flashes, on a large screen, an ever-fluctuating pattern governed by the physical characteristics of the sound produced by the clarinet. This, in part, accounts for the structure of the work: a series of sections which, as the laser is introduced, become gradually more and more complex. During the opening seven sections, the laser is alternately off and on; this is followed by a long, fast section using material previously heard without the laser, now with the laser on. The final section allows for free manipulation of the beam, and now by multiphonic sonorities. This work is designed specifically to explore the extremes of technical limitations. It was written for Phillip Rehfeldt, premiered by him on June 11, 1969, at The University of Michigan.

Peter Griffith, born in Ann Arbor (Michigan) in 1943, studied composition with Ross Lee Finney at The University of Michigan (to which he had been the first guitar major admitted) working for the master’s degree. He has also been concerned with experimental drama and recently spent some time in Mexico on a fellowship writing both drama and music. His ONE STRING QUARTET was one of the winners in the First Annual String Quartet contest held by the New England Conservatory. His music combines the openness of a dramatic quasi-improvisational rhetoric with the control of his personal approaches in using 12-tone sets.

Track 39 (7:13)
Sensations for Clarinet and Tape (1969)/Burton Beerman. ”The clarinet plays by itself for an extended period of time at the beginning to establish its presence--if it had begun with tape, the clarinet entrance would possibly have sounded like secondary accompaniment, no matter what it would do. The cadenza is done by the tape to avoid the opposite effect: dominance of the virtuoso element by the clarinet. The function of multiple sonorities by the clarinet is an electronic one, rather than just playing chords. The tape again complements this clarinet invasion of the electronic language by incorporating clarinet-like sounds.” BB

Burton Beerman was born in Atlanta (Georgia) in 1943. He attended Florida State University and holds the master s and doctorate from The University of Michigan. His teachers include Ross Lee Finney, Leslie Bassett, George B. Wilson, and George Cacioppo. He is presently director of the Bowling Green State University Electronic Music Studio and assistant director and co-founder of the Bowling Green State University Mixed Media Touring Group and New Music Ensemble.

Track 40 {4:10)
Two Pieces for Unaccompanied Clarinet (1964)/Elliot Borashansky “use the 12-tone row as a point of departure; however, the serial apparatus is not strictly applied.” EB

Elliot Borashansky (1930-2003) was born in New York City. He studied composition at Queens College, Columbia University, and The University of Michigan. In 1958 he won the George Gershwin Memorial Award with Music for Orchestra, which received three performances by the New York Philharmonic. Soon after he was awarded a Fulbright grant to work with Philipp Jarnach in Hamburg. Dr. Borishansky’s chamber works have been performed on many campuses throughout the country and include two other works for solo clarinet, Silent Movie (1969) and Set for Solo Clarinet (1972). He taught in the music department at Denison University in Granville, Ohio.

Track 41 (10:37)
A Set for Clarinet (1964)/Donald Martino was written (at the rate of one movement per day) in 1954 (completed on February 29) when Martino, age 23, was a student at Princeton. At the time ot its composition it was the most demanding piece in the solo clarinet literature, and today it stands as a classic of the virtuoso repertoire, still perhaps the most demanding in terms of conventional performance techniques. On the occasion of its New York premiere (by Art Bloom, May, 1954) David Epstein, then critic for Musical America, had this to say:

“Donald Martino’s Set for Clarinet achieved that most difficult and elusive goal of solo pieces--making music that is interesting as well as virtuosic. Indeed, these were both, for the writing had some fiendish passages--and it exploited to the full the textures and effect of the clarinet. The style was tonal and highly chromatic, with traces of Bartokian mannerisms in the second piece and the drives and rhythms of jazz in the third. . . .”

The Set--a term that in dance-band parlance refers to the practice of collecting a number of pieces to be played as a group before a short intermission--is in three movements, of which the first two, marked “Allegro” and “Adagio” respectively, are in ternary form, while the final “Allegro” is binary--the original titles for the three movements, not on the published copy, are/were “Tenth Avenue Shuffle,” “Blues in Eb,” and “Conservatory Stomp.”

Martino (1931-2005) holds degrees from Syracuse and Princeton Universities. He studied in Florence (Italy) on a Fulbright Fellowship. With a distinguished list of awards and commissions, he served as chairman of the composition department of the New England Conservatory.

Track 42 (7:44)
Four Studies for Two Clarinets (1964)/Elliott Schwartz “were written at a time in which the composer was moving from his previous closed-structure tonally-focused music into a personal style of more expanded resources and compositional freedom. Each of the studies works within a basic structured concept which unifies it, but it does so with a variety of contrast and gesture, including passages requiring performer choice of what pitches to play and when to pay them. Each study, too, grows from certain short motives and rhetorical shapes, and each moves at least once to a point of suspension, a momentary arrest of action. The tempo instructions for the studies indicate their varied nature: ‘Slowly, with intensity,’ ‘With great drive,’ ‘Gracefully, in a mood of play,’ ‘With violent contrasts of mood’” ES

Elliott Schwartz (b. 1936, New York City) studied composition with Otto Luening and Jack Beeson at Columbia University and privately with Paul Creston and Henry Brant. He is on the music faculty of Bowdoin College; he is also the author of a book on the symphonies of Vaughan Williams and the co-editor, with Barney Childs, of the anthology Contemporary Composers on Contemporary Music.

Track 43 (5:08)
Piece for Clarinet and Tape (1967)/Edward Miller “was written for Peter Kokinnias’ senior recital at Hartt College. The synthesizer was home-made. It consisted of 6 Lafayett sine-square generators (bought), 1 Eico electronic switch (kit, built by me and altered), 2 Ampex 351 tape decks (borrowed from Hartt recording studio), and the following, built by me from borrowed circuits: a 12-input mixer, a noise generator, a band-pass filter, a push-button keyboard for tone generators, power supplies (the source of many severe electric shocks), and another switch, without clicking transients. After playing with our Moog, Arp, and Buchla toys, as well as dabbling with our IBM 360 for digital sound generation, it all seems to be, in retrospect, terribly primitive, but I still like the piece--might be sentimentality.” EM

Edward Miller (1930-2013) was born in Miami. His musical education was taken at the University of Miami for the bachelor’s degree and the Hartt College of Music for the master’s. In 1955 a Fulbright grant took him to Berlin, where he studied with Boris Blacher and Joseph Rufer. He received a Guggenheim fellowship in 1967 and 1968, and in 1968 his Orchestral Fantasies was written for a Koussevitsky Library of Congress commission. His orchestral pieces have been performed extensively by such groups as the Dallas Symphony, the San Francisco Symphony, the Cleveland Orchestra, and the Berlin Philharmonic. He taught theory and composition at the Hartt College from 1059 to 1971, and subsequently taught these subjects at the conservatory of Oberlin College.

Track 44 (3:14)
B, a, b, b, i t, t (1968)/Donald Martino was written by Martino on his birthday (May 16) and presented to Milton Babbitt on his fiftieth birthday in the form of a 4x 6 card. B, a, b, b, it,t is, in all physical details of the original manuscript, a birthday card. The opening material is an acrostic on Babbitt’s name, represented by the notes B-flat, A, B-flat, B-natural, B-natural. This series recurs five times in various orders and serves to define the structure of the work. Home-made tubes attached to the bell of the clarinet extend the instrument s range well into the limits of the low register of the bassoon. Martino, himself a fine clarinetist, premiered the work in 1966 at the First National Conference of the American Society of University Composers, at Columbia University.

Martino (1931-2005) holds degrees from Syracuse and Princeton Universities; he studied in Florence (Italy) on a Fulbright Fellowship. With a distinguished list of awards and commissions, he served as chairman of the composition department of the New England Conservatory.

Track 45 (12:40)
Music for Oboe and B-flat Clarinet (1963)/William Sydeman was premiered by the Charles Veazey and Phillip Rehfeldt at the University of Redlands in the summer of 1972 during a high-school music clinic. The work is in three movements: “Allegro,” “Allegro molto,” and “Largo”; movements two and three derive their musical materials from portions of the opening movement.

Sydeman s music, in an almost “neo-classical” sense, typically combines his own highly personal expression with the structural techniques of the past. This is especially evident in the second movement of his Music for Oboe and Clarinet, subtitled “Minuet Duo.” In the “Minuet” a rapid ostinato figure in the clarinet is repeated passacaglia fashion throughout; over this the oboe presents its own materials, which finally results in a little tune in entirely different meters than that of the clarinet--at this point, strikingly reminiscent of rhythmic developments which appeared briefly in late fourteenth-century France. The “Duo” is an isorhythmic canon in which the points of imitation arrive closer and closer together until the distance of an eighth is attained. The composer was present to supervise this recording.

Born in 1928 in New York City, William Sydeman was educated at Mannes College and Hartt College of Music; he studied with Felix Salzer, Roy Travis, and Roger Sessions. In 1964 he received the Boston Symphony Merit Award for his orchestral compositions, and in 1966 he represented the State Department as an exchange lecturer in Czechoslovakia, Rumania, and Bulgaria. His large output includes music for various solo and chamber combinations as well as for orchestra, including a number of important works among the first to feature the double bass as a solo instrument in chamber music.
Charles Veazey is Emeritus Professor of Oboe at North Texas University, Denton.

Track 46 (4:53)
Sonatina for Clarinet Alone (1932}/Gerald Strang was first published in NEW MUSIC. It is atonal, but not serial, and the structure is conventional. Rhythmically it is prose-like, the meters changing freely to emphasize the irregular, spontaneous phrasing. The three movements are sharply contrasted, but some of the thematic material of the first movement is recalled in the last.

Gerald Strang (1908-1983) was born in Canada but lived his entire life in the United States. He was educated at Stanford, the University of California, and USC (Ph.D., 1948). He was associated with Arnold Schoenberg from 1935 until Schoenberg’s death, and edited Schoenberg’s Fundamentals of Musical Composition. After retiring from the California State University at Long Beach, he lectured in electronic music at UCLA. Since 1963, he devoted himself chiefly to composing and sound synthesis by means of large digital computers at Bell Telephone Laboratories and UCLA.

Track 47 (10:51)
Showers of Blessings (1972)/Gerald Plain, for clarinet and electronic tape, is in two connected sections, the first of which combines the sonorities of the clarinet with mostly electronic sounds, the second with the sounds of our “common experience,” including street music, children’s voices, hard rock, and the Baptist hymn Showers of Blessings. The writing for clarinet taps the newer sound potential of our time: glissando, quarter tones, multiphonics, and electronic modulation (particularly ring modulation). The work was requested by Phillip Rehfeldt.

Gerald Plain was born in Sacramento, Kentucky in 1940. He studied composition at the University of Michigan with Ross Lee Finney and Leslie Bassett. A partial list of his works include Golden Wedding (electronic tape), 3-See (piano), aCHATtaNOOg-CHOO (three amplified instruments and tapes), Arrows (orchestra), and Ripsnorter (electronic tape). He is now living in La Grange, Kentucky.

Part 5: Omnium-Gatharum: recordings and performances. Re-mastered from Roncorp Tapes EMX 201; Advance Recordings FGR-9S and 81; Casa Discografica Edi-Pan PRC SS2012. [Tracks 56-66]

Track 48 (2:25)
Voyage (1982)/Larry Johnson. “Both the instrument (improvising to instructions) and the reader move, as the text explains, on a voyage from the established into the unknown and back again. The comprehensibility of the text through the first part of the piece depends on an increasing probability that each phoneme will change to a neighboring phoneme, from .00 to 1.00; at the high point each phoneme is changed to any other phoneme. The original form of Voyage was done by hand using a table of random digits; the composer is developing an Apple II computer program, to be interfaced with a speech synthesizer, to try different probability curves on the same text.” LJ

The present live performance by Childs and Rehfeldt, from 1983, uses Echoplex--an early, 1960s type of tape-loop-in-a-box delay system.

Track 49 (4:56)
The Grand Guignols of Love, for clarinet and reader (1969)/Meyer Kupferman “is part of a larger work, The Body; Procession of the Parts (for seven instruments) written for myself and my friends to perform at some of my chamber-music parties in New York City. I love to write light entertainment pieces from time to time.” MK
Performance by Childs and Rehfeldt.

Meyer Kupferman teaches at Sara Lawrence University in New York City. Also a clarinetist, he was self-taught as a composer--influenced by his experience as a jazz musician.

Track 50 (10:39)
Effetti Collaterali (1976)/James Dashow “was requested by Francois Bousch, resident holder of the Prix de Rome, at the time, for the 1975/76 new music concert series at the French Academy in Rome. The electronic accompaniment was realized with Hubert Howe’s Music 4BF program at the Centro di Calcolo of the University of Padova. First performance was in June, 1976, at the French Academy. It is the composer’s first effort in using systematically his concept of AM and FM spectra as harmonisations of specified dyads. The specified pitches are made to generate their own accompanying frequencies, mostly enharmonic with respect to the generating pitches themselves, as a result of FM or AM procedures. Each interval, or,
in fact, each pitch-pair, can generate several possible spectra, but the similarity in sound quality between kinds of spectra quickly reduces the innumerable possibilities to a limited number of readily manageable families of chord-types. These chords are the basis for a variety of musically interesting relationships, and this work represents but one of many possible developments of these kinds of sounds.” JD

Track 51 (9:19)
Le Tracce di Kronos, I Passi (1995)/James Dashow. “My compositional procedures are all based on the system I’ve invented called the Dyad System, which is a way of organizing clarinet pitches and electronic sounds so that the two are in effect functionally interdependent--the dyads, as intervals, are made to generate families of sounds all of which have the dyad in common; or vice versa, particular electronic sounds are the results of certain intervals which are then developed via the pitch-structuring part of the system. The later is based on two simple but very powerful rules: given any group of notes (I always work with 6 at at a time, or 3 dyads): you (a) keep the pitches constant and change the intervals (any group of 6 notes can be rearranged to produce 15 combinations of dyads) and (b) keep the intervals constant and change the pitches that make them up (this is changing the “harmony,” i.e., the global collection of 6 pitches at any one time, but keeping them in the same intervallic pattern). I derive an enormous wealth of material jockeying back and forth between these two principles, groups of notes that are related in a variety of ways; and the electronic sounds are generated directly from the intervals the system produces (via still other procedures which I’ve developed over the years).” JD

Kronos, also intended {optionally) for dancer, was realized on the composer’s own Music 30 System. New clarinet techniques include breath attacks, at the beginning and at the end, and multiphonics. In Greek mythology, Kronos was the God of time.

James Dashow studied at Princeton and Brandeis universities with Babbitt, Randall, Kim, Berger, Shifrin, and Petrassi (at the Accademia Nazionale di Santa Cecilia, in Rome). Winner of many prestigious awards and prizes in composition, he now makes his home in the Sabine Hills north of Rome, where he is director of the Studio di Musica Elettronica Sciadoni.

Track 52 (5:06)
The Unwanted Vacation (bassoon and sequencer) (1994)/Andy Rehfeldt. “The chord progressions are based on the opening eight bassoon multiphonics. After the piece was written, the title was selected because the bossa nova section in the middle reminded me of a cruise-ship vacation, while the rest of the music represents turmoil similar to that found in the Chevy Chase movie Vacation.” AR

A 1983 graduate of the University of Redlands, Andy Rehfeldt is a freelance guitar player and composer of post-production TV and radio music for Endless Noise in Los Angeles. He currently has a popular You-Tube channel of a variety of original arrangements of well-known pop music--about 120 of them (“parodies”).

Track 53 (16:16)
Trio for Violin. Clarinet and Piano (1961)/David Cohen Adagio; Allegro (8:15) Intermezzo (Andante) (4:32) Allegro Vivace (3:31)
David Cohen (1927-1991) studied first at George Peabody College, then with Vincent Persichetti at the Philadelphia Conservatory and at the Juilliard School. He spent 1953-54 at the Paris Conservatory where he studied with Milhaud and Mme. Ple-Caussade. He completed his formal education at the University of Southern California where he studied with Ingolf Dahl and earned his DMA degree. He taught theory and composition for many years at the University of Alabama and Arizona State University. The Trio for violin, clarinet and piano was written when he was studying in California.
Phillip Rehfeldt is joined by violinist Frank Spinoza and pianist Walter Cosand, in 1983, when we were colleagues together on the music faculty at Arizona State University (Tempe).

Track 54 (8:24)
Three Songs for Clarinet and Piano (1957)/David Ward-Steinman, written when the composer was a twenty-year-old student at Florida State University, won the Phi Mu Alpha National Award in 1958. The movements are “Fast,” “Very Slow,” and “Bright and Rhythmic.” The work was recorded by Ward-Steinman and Rehfeldt in the mid-1970’s at San Diego State University.

David Ward-Steinman is Emeritus Professor and composer-in residence at San Diego State University and Adjunct Professor of Music at Indiana University. He studied with Keller, Boda, Riegger, Milhaud, Babbitt, Boulanger and Phillips. See also tracks 1, 24, 29, 33 and 36 (above) other of his for works and performances.

Track 55 (3:54)
Greetings! (1982)/William O. Smith was written early in the morning of April 23, 1982, during a national conference of the American Society of University Composers at the University of Washington. It is dedicated to the clarinetists that happened to attend the conference: Jerry Kirkbride, Jerry Rosen, Gerry Errante, Phil Rehfeldt, Bill McColl, John Muehleisen and Dave Jones. It was premiered that evening at a pre-concert dinner at Smith’s house in Seattle, with clarinetists (including Smith himself) in the kitchen, bathrooms, bedrooms, dining room, living room, porch, basement, etc. There is one universal part; “players should enter one after the other about a quarter note apart. Each phrase may be repeated as many times as desired. Follow the leader.” WOS

The present version is Rehfeldt alone, overdubbing.

William O. Smith is a professor (emeritus) at the University of Washington. He studied composition with Sessions and Milhaud. He often toured, as his schedule permitted, as clarinetist with Dave Brubeck.

Track 56 (9:48)
The Dissolution of the Serial (or, who stole my porridge?) (1967)/Sydney Hodkinson is scored for piano and “unspecified instrument or instruments,” and a short prepared tape. It is dedicated to “Guillâume Albright” and “Philippe Réhfèldt”--together at that time fighting the doctoral wars at The University of Michigan. Albright was a major contributor to the 1960s “ragtime” revival.

The present version is a 1986 live performance at the University of Redlands with Phillip Rehfeldt, oboe and Eb contrabass sarrusophone and Stephen Moore, piano. Some of the visual aspects called for in the score that obviously can’t be included on the recording are: the page turner feigning forgetting to turn the page, “surreptitious” yawning, passing of drinks and hors d’oeuvres, and the page turner entering into the final conversation.

Hodkinson studied with Louis Mennini and Bernard Rogers at the Eastman School, with Carter, Sessions, and Babbitt at Princeton, and Finney at The University of Michigan. He previously directed the Musica Nova Ensemble at Eastman. Stephen Moore was Professor of Music Theory and taught piano at the University of Redlands. Terry Graves is the page turner.

Tract 57 (14:46) Job 22:28 (1978)/Alexandra Pierce. “The two clarinets respond to the Biblical text:
You will decide on a matter,
and it will be established for you,
and light will shine on your ways.

The lines from Job are suggestive of the compositional process. The necessary rhythmic, melodic, and timbrel movement of tones was already “established” in the impulse to write this particular piece. The process of writing, the tending of the various musical ideas which evolved, was one of continual intuitive searching, and deciding on that which had, in another sense, already been decided. Composition brought gradual recognition and revelation (“light”) to what was there, but unrecognized.
Musically, the slower voice--moving across melody or holding a tone or, with a trill or tremolo, providing a bed of sound--represents the deep “established” level of hearing and sensing the way tones move. The faster, often sporadic comments of the second voice represents the testing out of decisions or their rightness against the lower voice, whose principles are always present and significant but in need of discovery. The two clarinets frequently interchange their roles so that the slower “established” voice is played now by the second clarinet, now by the first. Occasionally the faster voice makes full contact with the slower and they blend themselves into a tremolo or a trill, or together hold notes with controlled shaping of dynamics and vibrato.” AP

Martin Walker and Phillip Rehfeldt, clarinets. Re-mastered from Zanja Records ZR-2, 1978.

Pierce (b. 1932, Philadelphia), composer and pianist, is emeritus professor of music at the University of Redlands. A series of articles relating the structure of music to the structure of the human body have appeared in The Piano Quarterly, In Theory Only and The Journal of Transpersonal Humanistic Education. She has a Ph.D. in theory and composition from Brandise University.

Track 58 (11:43)
Contents of the Flexi-Disk in New Directions for Clarinet, First Edition, University of California Press (1977)/Phillip Rehfeldt, author (and clarinetist). [N.B.] The revised second edition (1983, 1993) of New Directions for Clarinet is available from Scarecrow Press.

I. Fundamental Considerations (excerpts)
Bettinelli
Oliver
Griffith
Martino
Stalvey

II. Monophonic Fingered Possibilities
Microtones (Childs)
Portamento with fingers alone
Expanded portamento using lip adjustments
“Color” fingerings

III. Multiphonics
Category 1, #4 (loud)
Category 2, #8 (moderately loud)
Category 3, #1 (soft)
Category 4, #2 (loud with beats)
Category 5, #3 (two tones, soft) Category
Category 6, #1 (loud, indeterminate upper partials) Category
Category 7, #1 (loud, multiple upper partials)

IV. Catalog of Additional Effects
Smorzato
Flutter tongue
Teeth on reed
Slap tongue
Throat tremolo
Vocal sounds while playing
Breath, or air sounds
Mouthpiece alone
Mouthpiece on lower half of instrument (normal fingerings)
Muted harmonic effects
Key slaps
Hand pops on barrel
Lip buzzing on barrel
Air across barrel
Difference tones (in upper register)

V. All Things Fancy (1977)/Jim Fox (Appendix F) was written, at the author’s request, especially for the first edition of this book with the objective to demonstrate “many” of the devices presented therein. He holds a B.M. degree from DePaul University and M.M. from the University of Redlands (studying composition with Barney Childs).


PHILLIP REHFELDT is Emeritus Professor of Woodwind Instruments (Clarinet) and Musicology in the School of Music at the University of Redlands (since 1969). He presently teaches bassoon at California State University, San Bernardino. His solo performances include the Monday Evening Concerts, International Clarinet Clinic/Symposia and ClariNetwork conferences, ASUC regional and national conferences, International Computer-Music Conference, the Schoenberg Institute, Arcosanti Art Festival, Scottsdale Arts Center, the 1980 ISCM in Israel, and beginning in 1974, with Barney Childs, concerts of specially-commissioned works under the title “New Music for Clarinet and Friend.” He has appeared with a number of orchestras and ensembles including, with the Cleveland Chamber Orchestra, the premier of Rudolph Bubalo’s Concerto for Clarinet and Small Orchestra. He has performed locally as principle clarinet/bass clarinet and bassoon with the Redlands Symphony, the Riverside Symphony, the Inland Empire Symphony, the Redlands Bowl Summer Festival Orchestra and, as woodwind doubler, the San Bernardino Civic Light Opera Association. His publications include New Directions for Clarinet (University of California Press, 1977; Scarecrow Press, 1983, 1993) and Guide to Playing Woodwind Instruments (Waveland Press, 1998; MillCreekPublications/Google Play, 2010). He has also published a number of ensemble and pedagogical editions including a six-part clarinet method Study Materials for Clarinet (MillCreekPublications, 1986); The Renaissance Band Book (Shawnee, 1981); Making and Adjusting Single Reeds (MillCreekPublications, 1983, 1991/Google Play); Etudes for the 21st-Century Clarinetist: a Festschrift for Barney Childs on the Occasion of His 50th Birthday from his friends and former students (MillCreekPublications, 1990, 1992, 1993/Google Play). He has recorded over seventy-five works on Advance, Brewster, CRI, Desto, Grenadilla, Roncorp, Edi-Pan, Society of Composers, New World Records, Leonarda, and Zanja labels. “American Music for Wind Quintet”--Douglas Moore, Elliot Carter, John Cage, Edwin London quintets, players are The Faculty Wind Quintet of the University of Redlands (recorded in 1976)--is available on cdbaby.com. He received undergraduate and graduate degrees from The University of Arizona (Tucson); Mount St. Mary’s College (Los Angeles); and (DMA) The University of Michigan (Ann Arbor). His teachers include Samuel Fain, Kalman Bloch, William Stubbins, Wendal Jones and Manuel Compinsky (chamber music).

SCOTT VANCE is former Adjunct Professor of Music (in music technology) and Audio Technical Director at the University of Redlands and present Instructor of music technology at California State University, San Bernardino and Norco College. In 1980 he delivered a paper on his micro-processor based live performance instrument “Optrix” (played by touching interactive graphics on a TV screen) in New York. With trombonist David Tohir, he developed the “backbone,” an instrument that uses electro-acoustic principals of feedback enhanced by electronically-resonate circuitry. He has worked with electronic music in film, video, multimedia and dancer. A holder of B.M.and M.M. degrees in clarinet from the University of Redlands, he is a founding member of the Anything Goes Örchestra and was a long-time member of the Redlands New Music Ensemble and the Redlands Symphony. He is a freelance recording engineer for Advance and Rastascan labels as well as barebonesrecords.com.

John Brownfield, cover art

MillCreekPublications
Redlands, California All rights reserved. ISBN: 0-933251-28-9
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