Scott O. Rogers & Fran Schultz | Earth's Evolution

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Avant Garde: Classical Avant-Garde Electronic: Experimental Moods: Instrumental
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Earth's Evolution

by Scott O. Rogers & Fran Schultz

This album leads the listener on a musical journey through the history of evolution on Earth.
Genre: Avant Garde: Classical Avant-Garde
Release Date: 

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  Song Share Time Download
1. Earth's Beginning
Scott O. Rogers
7:23 $0.99
2. Archaean Eon
Fran Schultz
6:16 $0.99
3. Proterozoic Eon
Fran Schultz
10:21 $0.99
4. Snowball Earth
Fran Schultz
4:06 $0.99
5. Cambrian
Scott O. Rogers
2:01 $0.99
6. Carboniferous
Fran Schultz
3:54 $0.99
7. Permian
Scott O. Rogers
5:03 $0.99
8. Mesozoic
Fran Schultz
7:54 $0.99
9. Cretaceous
Scott O. Rogers
4:07 $0.99
10. Cenozoic
Scott O. Rogers
6:31 $0.99
11. Quaternary
Scott O. Rogers
2:57 $0.99
Downloads are available as MP3-320 files.


Album Notes
•Scott Rogers is a Professor of Molecular Biology in the Department of Biological Sciences at Bowling Green State University, Bowling Green, Ohio. He has taught courses in Molecular Evolution, Cell Physiology, Molecular Biology, and Genetics. Other music can be found under the band name “Parchment Farm” at iTunes, StereoFame, LiquidAudio, CD Baby, and other sites. He is writing a book on Molecular Evolution, based on his Molecular Evolution course. It will be available in 2011, and will be a companion to the music in this album.

•Fran Schultz is a composer and musician. Other compositions can be found at:,, and

The following are the descriptions that accompany each composition. If you would like the booklet (which includes graphics) that accompanies the CD, please send a confirmation of purchase and a request for the booklet to:

EARTH’S BEGINNING (by Scott Rogers)
Duration: Hadean and Isuan eras of the Archaean- 4.55 to 3.5 bya.
Atmosphere: Water vapor, carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, nitrogen, sulfur
dioxide, carbon monoxide, ammonia, hydrogen, helium, methane).
Major Events:
Formation of Earth (4.55 bya)
Major collision with Mars-sized body to form the Moon (4.53 bya)
Earth molten at least until 4.2 bya
Major frequent bolide impacts (4.0 to 4.55 bya)
Liquid water present (4.4 bya)
First minerals solidify (4.1 bya)
Oceans present (4.0 bya)
Late major bolide bombardment (3.9 bya)
First rocks form (3.9 bya)
First catalytic RNAs (3.8 bya?)
First organisms (3.8 bya?)
First bacteria (3.5 bya)

ARCHAEAN EON (by Fran Schultz)
Duration: Swazian and Randian eras of the Archaean- 3.5 to 2.6 bya.
Atmosphere: Water vapor, carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, nitrogen, carbon
monoxide, sulfur dioxide, hydrogen, methane, ammonia.
Major Events:
Oceans cover surface of Earth by 3.8 bya.
Bacteria diversify (3.5-3.6 bya).
Archaea appear (3.0 bya).
First continent, called Ur, forms (3.0 bya).
First major ice age (2.8 bya).
Cyanobacteria begin photosynthesis that emits oxygen gas (2.7 bya);
This begins to change the composition of the atmosphere, as
well as the oceans.

PROTEROZOIC EON (by Fran Schultz)
Duration: 2.6 to 0.543 bya, split into three parts: Paleoproterozoic (2.6 to 1.6
bya), Mesoproterozoic (1.6 to 1.1 mya), and Neoproterozoic (1.1 to
0.543 bya).
Atmosphere: Initially, almost no oxygen, but by 2.2 bya, oxygen levels
increase to about 3%, and by 550 mya, the level rises to about 8%.
Major Events:
Cyanobacteria diversify, increase oxygen in atmosphere (2.6 to
2.3 bya).
Supercontinent Columbia forms (2.5 bya).
First eukaryotes, protists, and mitochondria (2.4 bya).
Supercontinent Nena forms (2.2 bya).
First photosynthetic eukaryotes (red algae) and chloroplasts (1.9 bya).
Supercontinent Rodina forms (1.5 bya).
First fungi (1.3 bya).
First green algae (1.2 bya).
First multicellular eukaryotes (1.0 bya).
Rodinia breaks apart (600 mya).

SNOWBALL EARTH (by Fran Schultz)
Duration: Three major global glaciation events (“Snowball Earth” episodes), at
2.5, 0.75, and 0.6 bya (wide white bars above), each lasting at least
tens of millions of years. Also, several shorter events (narrower white
Atmosphere: Oxidizing. Oxygen levels begin at less than 1%, and by the
end, have risen to about 8%. The coldest times associated with
higher atmospheric oxygen levels, and lower carbon dioxide levels.
Major Events:
Oxygen and cold inflict severe stress on organisms.
Organisms isolated by ice-covered areas, encouraging speciation.
Stress may have increased evolutionary rates.
Animal species diversify greatly (700 to 543 mya).
End to glaciation periods possibly from methane and carbon dioxide
released in volcanic eruptions and/or from major bolide

CAMBRIAN (by Scott Rogers)
Duration: 43 million years (543 to 500 mya). Part of the Paleozoic (543 to 250
mya), that includes six major divisions: Cambrian, Ordovician,
Silurian, Devonian, Carboniferous, and Permain.
Atmosphere: Oxidizing. Oxygen levels reached 20% about 370 mya, rises to
35%by 325 mya, then decreases to 15% by 250 mya.
Major Events:
Cambrian “explosion”, a huge diversification of animal types.
First chordates, arthropods, vertebrates, fish.
Following the Cambrian, other groups of organisms evolved.
First vascular plants (Silurian).
Diversification of reptiles (Devonian).
First sharks (400 mya).
Major impact (unknown location – 439 mya) – extinction event.
The supercontinent Gondwana forms (Cambrian).
Four major impacts (China – 375 mya; Sweden – 368 mya; Australia
– 364 mya; Canada – 357 mya) – multiple extinction events.

CARBONIFEROUS (by Fran Schultz)
Duration: 59 million years (354 to 295 mya)
Atmosphere: Oxygen and carbon dioxide levels higher than present-day
levels. From 354 to 325 mya, oxygen levels increased from 20% to
35%. By the end of the Carboniferous, levels dropped back to 20%.
Major Events:
Huge swamps and forests are present, that eventually form most of
the coal and oil deposits used today.
Fern and gymnosperm forests.
Amphibians predominate early in the Carboniferous, but Reptiles
expand and diversify by the middle of the Carboniferous.
Two major continents present: Gondwana and Euramerica

PERMIAN (by Scott Rogers)
Duration: 45 million years (295 to 250 mya).
Atmosphere: Oxygen levels are at modern levels (20%) at the beginning of
the Permian, but drop to 15% by the end of this period.
Major Events:
Major bolide impact (near the joining point of present-day southern
South America, South Africa, and Antarctica) causes major
extinction (250 mya), More than 90% of all species go
Supercontinent Pangea forms (250 mya).

MESOZOIC (by Fran Schultz)
Duration: 185 million years (250 to 65 mya). Three major divisions: Triassic,
Jurassic, and Cretaceous.
Atmosphere: Oxidizing. Oxygen levels increase to about 30% by 100 mya,
and then drop to present-day levels (21%) by 30 mya.
Major Events:
First dinosaurs (225 mya).
Major bolide impact (Canada; 214 mya) – extinction event.
Dinosaurs diversify (205 mya).
Major bolide impact Canada; 175 mya) – extinction event.
Three bolide impacts (South Africa – 142 mya; Norway – 142 mya;
Australia – 142 mya) – extinction events.
Eurasia and Africa separate from North America (180 mya).
Africa, South America, North America, Antarctica, and Australia
separate from one another (100 mya).
Major extinction (65 mya), bolide impact off Yucatan – dinosaurs go
extinct (many bird species, close relatives of dinosaurs,

CRETACEOUS (by Scott Rogers)
Duration: 79 million years (144 to 65 mya).
Atmosphere: During the Cretaceous, oxygen levels began at about 25%,
then increased to just above 30% before dropping to 21% by
about 30 mya.
Major Events:
Diversification of dinosaurs, including large and small carnivores.
Bolide impact off Yucatan (65 mya).
Deccan traps – huge volcanic event near in what is now India
(65 mya).
Major extinction (65 mya) – dinosaurs go extinct (except for
the birds).

CENOZOIC (by Scott Rogers)
Duration: 65 million years, split into the Tertiary and Quaternary.
Atmosphere: Oxidizing. At 65 mya, levels are at about 25%, but gradually
drop to about 21% by 30 mya.
Major Events:
Diversification of mammals (beginning at 60 mya)
Diversification of birds (beginning at 64 mya)
First primates appear (60 mya)
First cetaceans (whales and relatives; 45 mya)
Major bolide impacts (Chesapeake Bay and Siberia; 35 mya) –
extinction event of some land and aquatic species.
First hominids (7 mya)
First members of the genus Homo (3 mya)
Major bolide impact (Tajikistan; 2.6 mya) – extinction event.

QUATERNARY (by Scott Rogers)
Duration: 1.8 million years, divided into two Epochs: the Pleistocene and
the Holocene.
Atmosphere: Oxygen levels at modern levels (21%).
Major Events:
Homo sapiens appears (1.5 mya).
Homo erectus goes extinct (200 kya).
Homo neanderthalensis goes extinct (40 kya).
Human civilization begins (11 kya).
Domestication of wheat, rice, barley, pigs, goats, dogs, sheep
(10 to 11 kya).
Woolly Mammoth goes extinct (10 kya).
Mesopotamia founded (7 kya).
Stonehenge constructed (4 kya).
Dodo goes extinct (1680).
Darwin publishes “Origin of Species” (1859).



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