The Colonial Williamsburg Fifes and Drums | The World Turned Upside Down

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The World Turned Upside Down

by The Colonial Williamsburg Fifes and Drums

The Fifes and Drums of Colonial Williamsburg are world renowned military and field music performers. The music performed here was chosen to highlight the countries and styles found at Yorktown in 1781 when Cornwallis surrendered to Washington.
Genre: Folk: Traditional Folk
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  Song Share Time Download
1. The Drums Call
0:26 $0.69
2. Reveilly
0:43 $0.69
3. Roast Beef of Old England
0:29 $0.69
4. Medley of Airs: Sailor Laddie / Humours of Limerick / Humours of Liltivain
2:58 $0.69
5. Duke of York's March
3:16 $0.69
6. Duke of York's New March
1:59 $0.69
7. Men of Harlech & Rising of the Lark
3:37 $0.69
8. Maggy Lauder
2:30 $0.69
9. God Save the King or God Save America
0:32 $0.69
10. Borlum's Rant and Londonderry Hornpipe
2:16 $0.69
11. Retreat
0:45 $0.69
12. The World Turned Upside Down or When the King Enjoys His Own Again
1:07 $0.69
13. Tag Reveille
0:50 $0.69
14. Grenadir March
1:07 $0.69
15. Hohenfriedbergers Marsch
1:34 $0.69
16. Marshall Lowendahl's Marsch
1:39 $0.69
17. Marsch De Pappenheimer
1:30 $0.69
18. The Hessian Dragoons March
1:39 $0.69
19. Todten
1:51 $0.69
20. Medley of Marches: The Marquis of Granby's or 1st Troop of Horse Grenadiers March / The Marquis of Granby's March / Hessian Guards / The Marquis of Granby
3:04 $0.69
21. Retirate
0:46 $0.69
22. Cease Fire
0:14 $0.69
23. Roag's March
0:32 $0.69
24. Rhode Island Regiment March
1:33 $0.69
25. Lango Lee / Roxbury Quick Step / Wet & Weary
1:29 $0.69
26. Medley of Tunes: General Washington's March / Washington's Reel / Successful Campain / Country Dance or Doublings of the Troop
4:18 $0.69
27. Liberty, A Retreat
1:04 $0.69
28. La Priere
0:32 $0.69
29. La Facine Ou Breloque
0:45 $0.69
30. Medley of French Dances: L'originale / Les Amusements De La Loire / Philidor / La Victorieuse
4:08 $0.69
31. French Mariners / Les Drapeaux
2:42 $0.69
32. Ah Ca Ira
1:01 $0.69
33. La Retraite
0:31 $0.69
34. Lesson By Lully
3:15 $0.69
Downloads are available as MP3-320 files.


Album Notes

In late June 1781, Lord Cornwallis and an army consisting of British regulars, German mercenaries (Hessians), and American loyalists briefly occupied the city of Williamsburg. By August 1, Cornwallis had begun building fortifications at Yorktown to provide protection for his naval fleet.

Meeting in Connecticut, Continental Army General George Washington and French General Count de Rochambeau of France planned a joint expedition against the British Army. The French had signed a treaty in Paris in 1778 establishing an alliance with the Americans, and the arrival of Rochambeau with the French Army and Navy in July 1780 meant victory over the British was now feasible.

During the summer of 1781, events were set in motion that would lead to the last major campaign of the American Revolution—the Battle of Yorktown. American troops under the leadership of General Marquis de Lafayette had already formed a combined force in Virginia to torment and harass the British. Washington and Rochambeau and their armies arrived in Williamsburg during September 1781 and began final preparations for battle.

On September 30, the French attacked the Royal Fusiliers’ redoubt as the American and French armies began organizing their assault. By October 6, high atop the bluffs overlooking the York River in Virginia, the major armies were assembled and prepared to conduct a classic exercise in European military tactics—tactics perfected by the British, Germans, and French on the battlefields of Europe and adopted by Washington’s American Army. On October 9, the allied batteries began their bombardments. For the next eight days, the armies waged war with artillery and soldiers.

In addition to European military tactics, Americans also adopted European military organization and music. For hundreds of years, musicians provided signals that regulated the day in camp and relayed orders on European fields of battle. By the 1790’s, regimental drumbeats and national marches were inspiring soldiers and directing the pace of the troops as they paraded through the countryside.

Today, the Colonial Williamsburg Fifes and Drums (also known as the Field Music of the Virginia State Garrison Regiment) carry forward this tradition of military music. Since 1958, visitors to Colonial Williamsburg have enjoyed the performances of the Fifes and Drums. Boys and girls who are drawn from a waiting list of community applicants begin their education in military at age 10, practice weekly, and participate in numerous performances each year until they graduate from high school.

The fifers and drummers introduce the public to the role of music in the 18th-century military and teach younger fifers and drummers the music and traditions of the field musicians. The Fifes and Drums give more than 700 performances each year, and Colonial Williamsburg is justifiably proud of these remarkable young musicians.

THE FIFES AND DRUMS of Colonial Williamsburg
Colin Brauer Andrew Owen
Evan Bruno John Parks
Thomas Cooke William Parks
Les Frankel Chris Phelps
Arthur Gibbs Jonathan Seid
Scott Graham Caleb Spaulding
Cole Joyner Tim Sutphin
Amy Edmondson Miller Justin Trowbridge
Andrew Outlaw Hillary Vild

Snare Drummers
David Ackley Andrew Mills
Peyton Brauer Lance Pedigo
Michael Champion Stuart Smith
Nathan Egloff Adam Trowbridge
Casey Emmett Bryce Williams
Nicholas Jarvis George Wilson
Peyton Kammer

Bass Drummers
Matt Bosworth
Joey Converse
Raymond Jarvis
Jason Lapetina
Takari Watson

The Instruments
The armies of 18th-century Europe used snare drums to regulate military movement. The basic component of the 18th-century drum is a cylinder of wood, called a “shell.” Drumheads made from animal skins are stretched across the top and bottom of the shell and are secured by wooden hoops, which are held in place by ropes laced along the sides of the shell. Twisted pieces of animal gut, called “snares,” are stretched across the bottom drumhead to provide the instrument with its crisp, distinctive sound.

In the third quarter of the 18th century, the European military began using bass drums. These large barrel drums had been popular with Turkish armies for many years. British, German, and French soldiers who fought in the American Revolution were familiar with the sound of these instruments.

Swiss mercenaries popularized the fife, an instrument that first appeared in the 14th century and served as the European military accompaniment to the drum for many years. During the 17th century, the fife fell out of favor and nearly disappeared. The instrument regained its popularity by the 1750s, and by the advent of the American Revolution, the British, Germans, French, and Americans had adopted the fife to accompany the field snare drum. A fife is a simple flute—a cylindrical, side-blown instrument with six finger holes and no keys. The finest fifes are made from hardwoods such as rosewood, boxwood, and cocobolo. Because its high, shrill notes carried for quite a distance, the fife made a very effective sound on the battlefield.

The Music
On the battlefields of Yorktown, cannons from French and American lines were pounding the British and Hessian troops on the morning of October 17, 1781, when a British drummer mounted the parapet and began beating the “parley”—the universal signal for the cessation of hostilities. No one could hear the drum over the deafening sound of artillery fire.

When an officer with a white flag joined the drummer, the message was clear. One-by-one, the guns fell silent. Ebenezer Denny of Connecticut wrote in his diary, “When the firing ceased, I thought I never heard a drum equal to it—the most delightful music to us all.”

Two days later, on October 19, the British and German regiments marched out of their fortifications and surrendered to the combined American French armies. No one knows what tune was played that day.

Normally, a defeated army would have been given the privilege of playing a march belonging to the victors—a salute of sorts to the winning army. That privilege was denied Lord Cornwallis’ army, so we may say with some certainty that British and German musicians played their own regimental and national marches during their surrender.

More than 40 years after the surrender, Major William Jackson, who had served in the Continental Army, claimed the British had played a tune called “The World Turned Upside Down.” Subsequent historians suggested that the tune might have been a double entendre. It was not unusual for British popular tunes to have several sets of lyrics and titles. One version of “The World Turned Upside Down” is also known as “When the King Enjoys His Own Again.” Today, music historians doubt that either of these tunes was played on the surrender field, but the story remains popular—part of the mythology that inevitably accompanies important historical events and heroes.

The music performed on The World Turned Upside Down was chosen to highlight the countries and styles of music found at Yorktown—music from Britain and its mercenaries, the Hessians (Germans), and the music of America and its ally, the French. Some of the music can be directly traced to a unit or action at Yorktown, while other tunes trace their origins to one of the countries that fought in 1781.

We do know that the music played by these armies—British, German, French, and American—accompanied truly momentous events in the founding of our nation and inspired the heroes of the American Revolution. We hope the music of The World Turned Upside Down by the Fifes and Drums of Colonial Williamsburg will also inspire you.

The Musical Direction
Three dedicated historical musicians with special expertise lead the Colonial Williamsburg Fifes and Drums, working in concert to re-create the military unit called “fifes and drums” of the 18th century.

TIM SUTPHIN is a native of Williamsburg, Va., who joined the Colonial Williamsburg Fifes and Drums at the age of 10. Participating in the 1981 march to Yorktown and performing for the 1983 Economic Summit in Williamsburg are among the memorable highlights of his years as a performer. Tim received a bachelor’s degree in American History from East Tennessee State University and returned to the Colonial Williamsburg Fifes and Drums as an instructor in 1988. He assumed leadership of the fifes and drums in 1991. He is currently involved in school outreach programs teaching the importance of field music to students and serves as a clinician in 18th-century field music for other fife and drum corps throughout the nation.

LANCE PEDIGO entered the Colonial Williamsburg fifes and Drums in 1972 at the age of nine and graduated in 1981 as sergeant major. He received his bachelor’s degree in music with a performance concentration from James Madison University. He has performed with Disney’s All-American College Marching Band, the 1984 Summer Olympics All-American Marching Band, the 1984 Presidential Inaugural Band, and the All-American Statue of Liberty Band and has also performed throughout the United States, Japan, and Canada. He has recorded for Coastline Music and performed for National Public Radio. Lance currently performs with the early music ensemble Capriole and serves as a teambuilding facilitator and private teacher.

AMY LAURA EDMONDSON MILLER is a native of Atlanta, Ga. She holds a bachelor’s degree in music from Florida State University and a master’s degree from the University of North Carolina at Greensboro. She earned a doctorate in music from Florida State University in flute performance. Amy came to Virginia in 1996 and began performing for the Colonial Williamsburg Foundation as a colonial performer on baroque flute, recorder, and harpsichord. She became field music instructor on the fife for the Colonial Williamsburg Fifes and Drums in 1998 in preparation for girls being admitted to the program the following year. Today, Amy performs for Colonial Williamsburg and others and also teaches privately on modern and period instruments.

The Playlist
Inspiration for The World Turned Upside Down
came from a collection of music played at the
Battle of Yorktown—the final battle of the
American Revolutionary War.

from the BRITISH

1. “The Drums Call,” Fife, Compleat Instructions for the Fife, pub. Skillern, 1780; drum, Gardner drum manuscript, 1787 :25

2. “Reveilly,” fife, Compleat Instructions for the Fife, pub. Skillern, 1780; drum, The Young Drummers Assistant, pub. Longman & Broderip, 1785 :42

3. “Roast Beef of Old England,” fife, Thompson manuscript, 1777; drum, A New Useful & Complete System of Drum Beating, pub. Ashworth, 1812 :28

4. Medley of Airs, Selection of Scotch, English, Irish, and Foreign Airs, volume 3, pub. Aird, 1788:
“Sailor Laddie,” fife arr. T. Sutphin; drum arr. L. Pedigo
“Humours of Limerick,” fife arr. T. Sutphin; drum arr. L. Pedigo;
“Humours of Liltivain,” fife arr. W. E. White; drum arr. K. Wells 2:57

5. “Duke of York’s March,” The Instrumental Assistant, volume c. 1807; arr. W. E. White 3:16
“The Duke of York’s March” is the regimental slow march of the Grenadier Guards who fought at Yorktown as the First Guards Regiment.

6. “Duke of York’s New March,” New Instructions for the German Flute, pub. Longman & Broderip, 1780; arr. L. Pedigo 1:58
“The Duke of York’s New March” has the same melody as Mozart’s “Figaro,” completed in 1786.

7. “Men of Harlech/Rising of the Lark,” Musical and Poetical Relicks of the Welsh Bards, pub. E. Jones, 1784; arr. T. Sutphin 3:37
“Men of Harlech” is used by the 23rd Royal Welch Fusiliers as a regimental march, while “Rising of the Lark” is used as their duty reveille beating. The 23rd Fusiliers defended their redoubt against the French at Yorktown.

8. “Maggy Lauder,” Harpsichord or Spinnet Miscellany, pub Bremner, 1765 2:30

9. “God Save the King,” or “God Save America,” Fife Book, Nixon, 1778; arr. J.C. Moon :32
“God Save the King” was found in Thomas Nixon’s personal Fife Book under the name “God Save America.” It was common for popular tunes to be renamed or to have new words written for them, and such is the case with this tune.

10. “Borlum’s Rant,” A Choice Collection of Scottish Reels or Country Dances and Strathspeys, pub. Robert Toss, 1780; arr. T. Sutphin, H. Watson; Londonderry Horpipe, traditional, arr. J. C. Moon and H. Watson 2:15

11. “Retreat,” Entire New and Compleat Instructions for the Fife, pub. Longman & Broderip, 1779-1798, fife arr. T. Sutphin; drum arr. L. Pedigo :45

12. “The World Turned Upside Down,” or “When the King Enjoys His Own Again,” Popular Music of Olden Times, Book 1, Chappell 1859; arr. W. E. White 1:07
This tune is reputed to have been played at the surrender of the British at Yorktown on October 19, 1781. There are many references to the fifes and drums playing mournfully, or without spirit, but no song titles have ever been recovered.

from the HESSIANS

13. “Tag Reveille,”Churfurstlich Pfalzbayerische Regiments—Streich, fur Pfeifen und Trommel, 1781 :49
Reveille marches signaled the beginning of the workday for soldiers.

14. “Grenadir (sic) March,” Churfurstlich Pfalzbayerische Regiments—Streich, fur Pfeifen und Trommel, 1781 1:07

15. Hohenfriedbergers Marsch, pub. Diesenroth, c. 1760; arr. J.C. Moon 1:34
This tune was played for the commander as he inspected the troops.

16. “Marshall Lowendahl’s Marsch,” Compleat Instructions for the Fife, pub. Skillern, 1780; arr. J. C. Moon 1:38

17. Marsch de Pappenheimer, Diesenroth, c. 1760; fife arr. J. C. Moon, drum arr. J. Barbour/R. Edmonson 1:29

18. “The Hessian Dragoons March,” The Compleat Tutor for the Fife, pub. Thompson, 1770; arr. L. Pedigo 1:38
These three marches were played to help the soldiers forget about the rigors of marching and think about more pleasant subjects—like music!
19. “Todten,” Churfurstlich Pfalzbayerische Regiments—Streich, fur Pfeifen und Trommel, 1781; arr. L. Pedigo 1:51
Loosely translated as “Death Dance,” this piece is a funeral march.

20. “Medley of Marches, Compleat Instructions for the Fife, pub. Longman and Lukey, 1770:
“The Marquis of Granby’s or 1st Troop of Horse Grenadiers March” (“Der Alte Dessaur”), fife arr. L. Pedigo, drum arr. J. C. Moon; harmony, The Fifer’s Companion, pub. Joshua Cushing, 1804
The Marquis of Granby’s March,” fife arr. L. Pedigo, drum arr. L. Pedigo/S. Pittman
“Hessian Guards,” drum solo, arr. T. Johnson
“The Marquis of Granby,” arr. W. E. White 3:04
These three marches relate to the Marquis of Granby. The drum score is arranged in the Hessian style.

21. “Retirate,” Churfurstlich Pfalzbayerische Regiments—Streich, fur Pfeifen und Trommel, 1781 :46
Retreat marches signaled the end of the workday for soldiers.

from the AMERICANS

22. “Cease Fire,” fife, Fife Book, Thomas Nixon, 1778; drum, The Young Drummers Assistant, pub. Longman & Broderip, 1785 :14

23. “Roag’s March,” fife, Henry Blake manuscript, 1775; drum, A New Useful & Complete System of Drum Beating, pub, Ashworth, 1812 :32
These two British duty calls were used by the Americans as their own—a common practice. “Cease Fire” was played on the field of battle to stop the firing of either a company or regiment. “Roag’s March” was used as a “drumming out” ceremony.

24. Rhode Island Regiment March, Sally Pickman manuscript, 1785-1795; fife arr. A. Miller, drum arr. L. Pedigo/S. Pittman 1:33
This tune honors the members of the Rhode Island Regiment, who served with distinction at the Battle of Yorktown. The regiment included many slaves and free blacks fighting for the Continental Army.

25. Lango Lee,” “Roxbury Quick Step,” “Wet & Weary,” Fife Book, Thomas Nixon, 1778; fife arr. A. Miller, drum arr. L. Pedigo/S. Pittman 1:29
Thomas Nixon was a fifer who served throughout the American Revolution with numerous Massachusetts regiments. His personal manuscript of tunes is the source for many tunes played today.

26. Medley of Tunes:
“General Washington’s March,” The Fifer’s Companion, pub. Joshua Cushing, 1804; arr. J. C. Moon
“Washington’s Reel,” Fife Book, Thomas Nixon, 1778; arr. A. Miller, harmony, The fifer’s Companion, pub. Joshua Cushing, 1804
“Successful Campain” (sic), John Greenwood manuscript, c. 1775- 1776; arr. J. C. Moon
“Country Dance,” or “Doublings of the Troop,” Compleat Instructions for the Fife, pub. Skillern, 1780; arr. A. Miller, harmony, The Fifer’s Companion, pub. Joshua Cushing, 1804 4:18
This medley of tunes honors General George Washington, commander of the Continental Army at Yorktown. “Country Dance” was a particular favorite of Washington. John Greenwood was a fifer with the 15th Massachusetts Regiment and was also Washington’s personal dentist. The drum parts for “Successful Campain” and “Country Dance” were taken from Benjamin Clark’s handwritten Drum Book, 1797.

27. Liberty, A Retreat, Samuel Hudson manuscript, 1772; fife arr. A. Miller, drum arr. L. Pedigo/S. Pittman 1:03

from the FRENCH

28. La Priere” (Prayer Call), Ordannance du Roi, 1776 :32

29. La Facine ou Breloque” (Pioneer’s Call), Ordannance du Roi, 1776 :44
These two French duty calls are played with a French fife, which is in the key of D, a higher-pitched fife. Duty calls were used to regulate the actions of the troops in camp and on the battlefield.

30. Medley of French Dances, De la Cuisse, Le Repertoire des Bals, 1762:
“L’Originale,” trans. T. Sutphin, arr. H. Watson
“Les Amusementa de la Loire,” trans. T. Sutphin, arr. H. Watson
“Philidor,” arr. J. C. Moon
“La Victorieuse,” trans. L. Pedigo, arr. A. Miller 4:08
These types of dances were very popular during the mid 1770s in British North America. “Philidor” is based on a drum score found in the Philidor manuscript dated 1686.

31. “French Mariners,” Pocket Collection of Favorite Marches, volume 1, pub. Button and Whitakers, 1780; arr. W. E. White;
“Les Drapeaux,” A Selection of Scotch, Irish and Foreign Airs, volume 3, pub. Aird, 1788; arr. W. E. White 2:42
“Troopings” were exercises used to educate the soldiers. The flag of the regiment would be passed slowly in front of the troops so they would be able to recognize it on the field of battle.

32. “Ah Ca Ira,” Evening Amusement, pub. Carr, c. 1796; arr. J. C. Moon 1:01

33. “La Retraite,” Ordannance du Roi, 1776 :31

34. “Lesson by Lully,” Harpsichord or Spinnet Miscellany, pub. Bremner, 1765; trans. T. Sutphin, arr. H. Watson 3:14
Fifers often played classical compositions in the fields to entertain the troops. “Lesson by Lully” is a haunting, emotional tune meant to sound as if the fifers are playing from a battlefield far away.

Senior Executive Producer
Richard L. McCluney Jr.

Executive Producers
Michael J. Lombardi
William G. Wagner

Audio Producer & Engineer
Todd A. Judge, MPSE

Associate Producer
Abigail Schumann

Assistant Engineers
Chuck Smith, C.A.S.
Chris S. P. Jones

Audio Assistants
Mark Curtis
Harold Spankus

Musical Direction
Lance Pedigo
Tim Sutphin
Amy Edmonson Miller
Assisted by
Stewart Pittman
Art Director
Elizabeth Eaton

Liner Notes
Tim Sutphin
Bill White

Barbara Rust Brown

David M. Doody

Benny Quinn, Masterfonics

All income from the sales of this recording is used for the purposes of The Colonial Williamsburg Foundation, which operates the Historic Area, and to carry forward its educational programs. Colonial Williamsburg welcomes private contributions. Friends interested in discussing gifts to the Foundation are invited to contact the Director of Development, The Colonial Williamsburg Foundation, Post Office Box 1776, Williamsburg, Virginia 23187-1776.

For more information on products and programs offered by Colonial Williamsburg, visit our website

Produced by The Colonial Williamsburg Foundation

©2003 The Colonial Williamsburg Foundation



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