The Colonial Williamsburg Governor's Musick & Michael Monaco | Keys of the Palace

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Keys of the Palace

by The Colonial Williamsburg Governor's Musick & Michael Monaco

Colonial Williamsburg’s staff harpsichordist Michael Monaco interprets the 18th century musician Peter Pelham. The music in this CD reflects the selections that Monaco plays superbly throughout the year at Colonial Williamsburg's live music venues.
Genre: Classical: Keyboard Music
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  Song Share Time Download
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1. Air
The Colonial Williamsburg Governor's Musick & Michael Monaco
1:21 $0.69
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2. Scot's Ground
The Colonial Williamsburg Governor's Musick & Michael Monaco
2:20 $0.69
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3. Lessons By Lully: Gavotte
The Colonial Williamsburg Governor's Musick & Michael Monaco
1:35 $0.69
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4. Lessons By Lully: Minuet
The Colonial Williamsburg Governor's Musick & Michael Monaco
1:52 $0.69
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5. Suite: Allegro Moderato
The Colonial Williamsburg Governor's Musick & Michael Monaco
1:57 $0.69
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6. Suite: Allegro Assai
The Colonial Williamsburg Governor's Musick & Michael Monaco
1:20 $0.69
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7. Suite: Andante
The Colonial Williamsburg Governor's Musick & Michael Monaco
0:46 $0.69
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8. Suite: Allegro
The Colonial Williamsburg Governor's Musick & Michael Monaco
1:14 $0.69
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9. Lessons II: Aria
The Colonial Williamsburg Governor's Musick & Michael Monaco
1:01 $0.69
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10. Lessons II: Minuet
The Colonial Williamsburg Governor's Musick & Michael Monaco
1:29 $0.69
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11. Lessons II: Gavotte
The Colonial Williamsburg Governor's Musick & Michael Monaco
1:04 $0.69
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12. Minuet
The Colonial Williamsburg Governor's Musick & Michael Monaco
2:09 $0.69
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13. Beggar's Opera: Overture
The Colonial Williamsburg Governor's Musick & Michael Monaco
2:46 $0.69
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14. Beggar's Opera: Oh Polly You Might Have Toy'd and Kissed
The Colonial Williamsburg Governor's Musick & Michael Monaco
0:25 $0.69
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15. Beggar's Opera: I, Like a Ship in Storms
The Colonial Williamsburg Governor's Musick & Michael Monaco
0:28 $0.69
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16. Beggar's Opera: My Heart Was so Free
The Colonial Williamsburg Governor's Musick & Michael Monaco
0:30 $0.69
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17. Beggar's Opera: Where I Laid On Greenland's Coast
The Colonial Williamsburg Governor's Musick & Michael Monaco
0:46 $0.69
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18. Beggar's Opera: Fill Every Glass
The Colonial Williamsburg Governor's Musick & Michael Monaco
0:32 $0.69
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19. Beggar's Opera: Let Us Take the Road
The Colonial Williamsburg Governor's Musick & Michael Monaco
0:57 $0.69
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20. Beggar's Opera: Youth's the Season
The Colonial Williamsburg Governor's Musick & Michael Monaco
0:57 $0.69
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21. Beggar's Opera: Before the Barn Door Crowing
The Colonial Williamsburg Governor's Musick & Michael Monaco
0:28 $0.69
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22. Beggar's Opera: The Modes of the Court
The Colonial Williamsburg Governor's Musick & Michael Monaco
0:36 $0.69
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23. Beggar's Opera: Come Sweet Lass
The Colonial Williamsburg Governor's Musick & Michael Monaco
0:50 $0.99
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24. Beggar's Opera: The Change Is Prepared
The Colonial Williamsburg Governor's Musick & Michael Monaco
0:49 $0.69
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25. Beggar's Opera: Would I Might Be Hanged
The Colonial Williamsburg Governor's Musick & Michael Monaco
0:57 $0.69
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26. Beggar's Opera: Thus I Stand Like the Turk
The Colonial Williamsburg Governor's Musick & Michael Monaco
1:16 $0.69
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27. Lessons II: Courante
The Colonial Williamsburg Governor's Musick & Michael Monaco
1:37 $0.69
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28. Lessons II: Sarabanda
The Colonial Williamsburg Governor's Musick & Michael Monaco
0:57 $0.69
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29. Lessons II: Minuet (Short)
The Colonial Williamsburg Governor's Musick & Michael Monaco
0:59 $0.69
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30. Lessons II: Gigue
The Colonial Williamsburg Governor's Musick & Michael Monaco
1:03 $0.69
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31. Minuet Espagna
The Colonial Williamsburg Governor's Musick & Michael Monaco
1:42 $0.69
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32. Haste to the Wedding
The Colonial Williamsburg Governor's Musick & Michael Monaco
1:19 $0.69
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33. The King of Denmark's Favorite
The Colonial Williamsburg Governor's Musick & Michael Monaco
1:49 $0.69
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34. First of April
The Colonial Williamsburg Governor's Musick & Michael Monaco
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35. Minuet D'alcide
The Colonial Williamsburg Governor's Musick & Michael Monaco
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36. Rule Britania
The Colonial Williamsburg Governor's Musick & Michael Monaco
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37. Sonata IV: Allegro
The Colonial Williamsburg Governor's Musick & Michael Monaco
3:05 $0.69
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38. Sonata IV: Minueto
The Colonial Williamsburg Governor's Musick & Michael Monaco
2:03 $0.69
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39. Sonata Xi: Allegro
The Colonial Williamsburg Governor's Musick & Michael Monaco
3:06 $0.69
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40. Sonata Xi: Aria
The Colonial Williamsburg Governor's Musick & Michael Monaco
2:13 $0.69
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41. Sonata Xi: Giga
The Colonial Williamsburg Governor's Musick & Michael Monaco
2:06 $0.69
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42. Voluntary in G
The Colonial Williamsburg Governor's Musick & Michael Monaco
2:42 $0.69
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43. Short Voluntary
The Colonial Williamsburg Governor's Musick & Michael Monaco
1:21 $0.69
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44. Pastorale
The Colonial Williamsburg Governor's Musick & Michael Monaco
3:28 $0.69
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45. Trumpet Voluntary
The Colonial Williamsburg Governor's Musick & Michael Monaco
4:20 $0.69
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46. Gavotte
The Colonial Williamsburg Governor's Musick & Michael Monaco
2:39 $0.69
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47. God Save the King
The Colonial Williamsburg Governor's Musick & Michael Monaco
1:52 $0.69
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48. Hail to the Conquering Hero
The Colonial Williamsburg Governor's Musick & Michael Monaco
0:55 $0.69
Downloads are available as MP3-320 files.

ABOUT THIS ALBUM


Album Notes
K E Y E D M U S I C A L IN S T R U M E N T S
Of the Governor’s P A L A C E
BY John Watson
With the American Revolution nipping at his heels, Virginia’s colonial governor, the Earl of Dunmore, was forced to flee the royal residence in Williamsburg. According to an account of his losses still on file in London, he hastily left behind “3 organs, a Harpsichord, a Piano-Forte, and other Musical Instruments.” Although lost forever to history, these instruments are now represented by restored antiques of the period, collected over the past few decades by Colonial Williamsburg curators.

“In the Palace at Williamsburg… 3 organs, a Harpsichord, a Piano-forte, and other Musical Instruments.”

ESTIMATE OF LOSSES SUSTAINED BY THE EARL OF DUNMORE (FORMER GOVERNOR OF THE COLONY) IN VIRGINIA. PUBLIC RECORDS OFFICE, LONDON AUDIT OFFICE 13- BUNDLE 28.

The Jacob Kirckman HARPSICHORD
The palace harpsichord, made in 1758, is one of three in the Colonial Williamsburg collection made by Jacob Kirckman of London. He was the preeminent harpsichord maker for England and America during the last half of the 18th century. In 1786 and again in 1798, Thomas Jefferson ordered harpsichords for his daughters from Kirckman. The palace instrument has two keyboards, three sets of strings (one an octave higher than the other two), and four sets of jacks (two plucking the same set of strings for a choice of tone quality). Each set of jacks is brought into play by means of a hand stop. Oral tradition suggests that this harpsichord was once owned by the BBC and was the first to be heard on a live broadcast.
The Abraham Adcock and John Pether CHAMBER ORGAN
The chamber organ is the only known product of the London partnership of Abraham Adcock and John Pether. Constructed sometime between 1750 and 1765, the organ looks like a desk or bureau with a folding keyboard. A little more than four octaves of keys (C-e3, 53 notes) operate four stops: an eight-foot stopped diapason, a four-foot flute, a two-foot fifteenth, and a two-rank mixture, making a total of 265 pipes. A recently restored foot-operated machine stop, which the English call a “shifting movement,” permits the organist to subtract the two-foot and mixture without pausing to operate the draw knobs.

The James Ball SQUARE PIANOFORTE
The palace’s square pianoforte was made by James Ball of London, and although this instrument dates to the 1790’s, it has the brilliantly uncomplicated mechanical action of the earliest (1760’s) English pianos. While the harpsichord and organ gave musicians a variety of acoustically colorful “stops” with which to make musical expression, the newly invented piano provided the capacity to dynamically shape musical phrases by controlling volume. The transition in popularity from harpsichord to piano heralded a shift of fashion. Over the next century, the square piano would grow to a much greater size and weight before being entirely replaced in the domestic market of the Victorian era by the vertical piano.
John Watson is Conservator of Instruments and Mechanical Arts, Colonial Williamsburg Foundation.
The Performer
MICHAEL MONACO
Colonial Williamsburg’s staff harpsichordist Michael Monaco interprets the character of Peter Pelham. A native New Yorker, Monaco has been a professional musician since he first played a church organ at the age of twelve. He is a graduate and former faculty member of the Mannes College of Music and has performed worldwide in a number of venues, including television.
Monaco celebrates his love of history and Baroque music at Colonial Williamsburg, where he performs historic music on period instruments. As harpsichordist for “The Governor’s Musick,” the resident performing ensemble at Colonial Williamsburg, Monaco joins other world-class musicians to bring the buildings to life with music every day.
In addition to classical music, Monaco performs a variety of styles, including jazz, and he has a particular love for the English composers who were popular in colonial times. A member of the American Harp Society, he has played harp with the New York City Ballet and has recorded an album of meditative improvisations on the harp.


MUSIC in Colonial Virginia Society
By Robert Wayne Moss

“Run away from the Subscriber, the Negro Boy so well known in this City by the Name of Fiddler Billy…He belongs to the Estate of Edward Nicholson, deceased; and I hired him of Mr. Benjamin Weldon, the Executor…
Williams Fearson (a dancing master).” Virginia Gazette [DIXON & HUNTER] NOVEMBER 4, 1777.

By the second half of the 18th century, Virginia supported a surprisingly large and varied musical culture. Almost every sort of musical instrument, printed music, and book on music theory or performance then available in England was ordered privately through London “factors” or offered for sale by Virginia merchants, as colonial Virginians set about attaining the favored social grace of musical skill. Wealthy families, such as Robert Carter’s, could and often did keep several musical instruments and sizeable collections of music. Middle-class families did the same on a smaller scale. Silversmith James Geddy’s family had a spinet (a small member of the harpsichord family). Tavern inventories list violins, flutes, hautboys, and even horns.

“He [Robert Carter] has a good Ear for Music; a vastly delicate Taste: and keeps good Instruments, he has here at Home a Harpsichord, Forte-Piano, Harmonica, Guittar, Violin & German Flute, & at Williamsburg, has a good Organ.”
JOURNAL AND LETTERS OF PHILIP VICKERS
FITHIAN, DECEMBER 13, 1773.

Music permeated every level of Virginia’s colonial society from the household of the royal governor to the runaway slave “Fiddler Billy.”

TEACHERS IN COLONIAL VIRGINIA
Teaching the citizens of colonial Virginia the art and mysteries of music was a difficult means of earning a living. Various itinerant “professors of Musick” made Williamsburg an important stop on the teaching circuits of Virginia’s plantation homes. This traveling lifestyle enabled them to support themselves in a colony made up of widespread planter families and small towns. Only rarely would a music teacher attempt, due to special circumstances, to establish a permanent residence in a town as small as Williamsburg. Williamsburg did however have one well-established professional who dominated capital city’s musical activities—organist Peter Pelham.

“William Attwood, Begs leave to inform the Gentlemen of Williamsburg that he
teaches the French Horn, Hautboy, & German Flute, and has, for that Purpose, rented a Room near the College…”Virginia Gazette [PURDIE &DIXON] MAY 23, 1771.

“Mrs. Neill is now in Williamsburg, where she purposes teaching the Guitar at one Guinea Entrance, and one Guinea for eight Lessons. She will also instruct young Ladies in Reading, and Needle Work…”Virginia Gazette [DIXON &HUNTER] JULY 4, 1777.


“Tuesday, February 25, 1783…There’s the Church[Bruton] fam’d for itsnoble Organ of one hundred notes, touch’d by the modern Orpheus-the inimitable Pelham…” JOURNAL OF ALEXANDER MACAULAY,MERCHANT OF YORKTOWN.

“…the Burgesses…pass’d a Resolve that a sum of £30 Be paid by the Treasurer to
Peter Pelham for performing On the Organ in the Church Of Williamsburg during the Session and for keeping the Same in order…Resolve was Read and agreed to.”
LEGISLATIVE JOURNALS OF THE COUNCIL, 1754-1773, VOL. III.

‘…THE INIMITABLE PELHAM’
Williamsburg’s chief musician for more than 50 years was Peter Pelham. His musical world (albeit on a smaller scale) was in some ways more complex than that of the European professional musicians of his day. In Europe, church musicians did not work in the secular theater, and vice-versa. Only a very few individuals, such as Georg Philipp Telemann in Germany, worked in theater, church, chamber, and concert hall at the same time in the way Pelham did in Williamsburg. Patrons and friends also secured non-musical posts for Pelham. He was clerk to both Governor’s Fauquier and Botetourt, and perhaps because of his family’s reputation, he was named as one of the commissioners to supervise the production of Virginia treasury notes. Peter Pelham moved with ease in society as musician, civil servant, teacher, instrument repairman, and Masonic brother. He was a respected and admired member of the Williamsburg community welcomed equally by royal governors, legislators, merchants, churchmen, actors, and fellow musicians.



INSTRUMENTS AND MUSIC IN 18TH-CENTURY VIRGINIA
Private letters, diaries, and journals, in addition to newspapers and estate inventories, provide a remarkable amount of detail about what musical instruments, composers, and even precisely which musical works were known and performed in colonial Virginia. The charming little poem “On Miss Anne Geddy…” tells us that Miss Geddy, one of Pelham’s students, played a spinet and that she played the music of Corelli, Handel, Felton, and Nares. Thomas Jefferson’s 1783 catalogue of the music he owned, the music collection of George Washington’s household, and sources such as the estate inventory of professional English musician Cuthbert Ogle, who died within weeks of arrival in Williamsburg, give more information as to which works were actually found in Virginia. In the case of Ogle’s estate, Peter Pelham compiled the inventory of works and quite likely acquired a good portion of Ogle’s music for himself. A manuscript collection of music, copied by various members of the Bolling family of Virginia during the second half of the 18th century, has preserved the one surviving work composed by Peter Pelham himself. Music by George F. Handel, Robert Bremner, William Felton, Henry Burgess, James Hook, Henry Heron, John Worgon, and Thomas Augustine Arne were found in the sources named above.

“On Miss Anne Geddy singing and playing on the Spinet”

When Nancy on the spinet plays
I fondly on the virgin gaze,
And wish that she was mine;
Her air, her voice, her lovely face,
Unite, with such excessive grace,
The Nymph appears divine.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Corelli, Handel, Felton, Nares,
With their concertos, solos, airs,
Are far less sweet to me!
Virginia Gazette [PURDIE &
DIXON] APRIL 14, 1768

“They are building a steeple to our Church, the Door’s for that reason is open every day; and scarce an evening (as Dickey can tell you) but we are entertain’d
with the performances of Felton’s Handel’s Vivally’s [Vivaldi’s] &c…”
LETTER FROM ANNE BLAIR OF WILLIAMSBURG
TO HER SISTER MARTHA BRAXTON, AUGUST 21, 1769.

MUSIC AND DANCE AT THE COLONIAL WILLIAMSBURG FOUNDATION TODAY
Music has always been a part of Colonial Williamsburg’s interpretation of 18th-century Virginia. With music pervading all aspects of colonial life and culture, it could hardly be otherwise. Today in Colonial Williamsburg, more than 60 years after the first candlelight concert in the Governor’s Palace, there are literally hundreds of performances each year interpreting music and dance in colonial Virginia, providing daily opportunities for visitors to experience the musical life of 18th-century Virginians. Throughout the Historic Area, at locations such as The Governor’s Palace, Peyton Randolph House, George Wythe House, James Geddy House, Benjamin Powell House, Raleigh Tavern, Wren Chapel of the College of William and Mary, and Bruton Parish Church, musicians and dancers are a part of the daytime interpretation. After dark, guests enjoy candlelight concerts in the Palace ballroom, musical diversions in both the Capitol building and the Courthouse, and balls and dance diversions in both the Palace and Capitol. Many music and dance programs are tailored to the needs of visiting school groups. These programs, supported by Colonial Williamsburg’s unsurpassed musical instrument and print music collections and research facilities, combine the artistic excellence of the Foundation’s performers with its unique historic performance sites to produce a truly one-of-a-kind experience.

Robert Wayne Moss is a staff musician for Colonial Williamsburg.

“In the Barr. . .I old fiddle, I old Hautboy.” (INVENTORY OF PERSONAL ESTATE OF
JAMES SHIELD, WILLIAMSBURG TAVERN KEEPER, JANUARY 21, 1750) YORK COUNTY RECORDS, WILLS,
INVENTORIES, BK XX P. 198

Notes about the COMPOSERS Featured in the Recording
With the exception of Pepusch and Handel, all the composers are native-born English musicians. The world of 18th-century English music was dominated by both foreign musicians and foreign taste. Men such as Handel, Pepusch, G. Bononcini, Carl F. Abel, and J.C. Bach dominate the major opera houses, theaters, and court music posts. It is they who set the taste and style for all “English” music. Native English musicians, such as these listed (with the exception of Thomas Arne) had to content themselves with composing for the pleasure gardens such as Vauxhall and being organist/choirmaster in the Church of England’s many organ lofts. In some instances, nothing is known of them except the music they left behind.

George Friedrich Handel (1684 - 1759)
England’s most famous and important composer during the first half of the 18th century, he was so famous that his music remained popular throughout the century in spite of stylistic changes in music.
Robert Bremner (1713 - 1789)
Scottish music publisher whose volume “The Harpsichord or Spinnet Miscellany,” published ca. 1765, was one of the most popular manuals of its day. Both Jefferson and Washington owned copies.
William Felton (1715 - 1769)
This English clergyman, organist, harpsichordist, and composer was active in Cambridge. His two sets of “Lessons” were published in 1750 and 1758. His music appears on inventory lists of both Ogle and Jefferson.
Henry Burgess Sr. (unknown).
Little is known of this composer whose music appears in the Ogle inventory. The August 29, 1771 [Purdie & Dixon] edition of the Virginia Gazette makes reference to the ship’s log of Capt. Richardson’s ship “Virginia” containing an assortment of papers, books, and music, including “Burgess Sr. lessons for the Harpsichord.”
Peter Pelham (1721 - 1805)
Peter Pelham Jr. was a Williamsburg musician, clerk, and jailer. He was born in London in 1721 and immigrated to Boston with his father and brothers in 1726. Pelham studied music with Charles Theodore Pachelbel, son of Johann Pachelbel, but he received much of his education from his father, who instilled in him the deep appreciation for the arts that remained with him throughout his life.
Peter Pelham came to Williamsburg in 1751 after serving as organist at Trinity Church in Boston. He was the organist at Bruton Parish Church from 1755 to 1802 and also taught harpsichord and spinet. Pelham served as musical director when The Beggar’s Opera was first performed in Williamsburg. He also participated in performing the music for royal balls at the palace, as there is record of him receiving two gold guineas from Lord Botetourt for his services at a King’s Birthnight Ball.
Pelham’s art and talent were insufficient to maintain his growing family. He and his wife Ann had 14 children, some of whom died in infancy. He supplemented his income by acting as a clerk to Governors Fauquier and Botetourt. Governor Dunmore, Lord Botetourt’s successor, named Pelham keeper of the Public Gaol, a position he held from 1771 to 1780. His composition “minuet” still survives, and many of his descendents are loyal supporters of Colonial Williamsburg.
Johann Christoph Pepusch (1667 - 1752)
German musician who, like Handel, lived in London. He composed the overture to John Gay’s Beggar’s Opera and set the sixty-nine folk songs that make up the score for its 1728 premier. Pelham conducted the Virginia premier in the 1760s.
Mr. Dezias (unknown)
Louis Guillaume Pecour (unknown).
Thomas Augustine Arne (1710 - 1779) was perhaps the most popular and successful of the native English musicians of the 18th century. Primarily a composer of theatrical music, he also wrote several oratorios, masses, and symphonies. Frederick, Prince of Wales, was his patron.
James Hook (1746 - 1827) was an English organist and composer who wrote a ballad opera when he was eight years of age. He composed many works for Vauxhall, a pleasure garden in London. Washington’s family owned his music.
Samuel Arnold (1740 – 1802) was an English composer and keyboard virtuoso who was named harpsichordist at Covent Garden Theater in 1764. He married an heiress and bought Marylebone Gardens (a rival of Vauxhall Gardens) that specialized in fireworks and concerts. He published many sets of sonatas and lessons for the keyboard in the 1770s and 1780s.
Henry Heron (unknown).
Very little is known of this composer. His music was owned by Thomas Jefferson.
John Worgan (1724 – 1790) studied at Cambridge and in 1751 succeeded his brother James as organist at Vauxhall Gardens and in 1753 at St. Botolph, Aldgate. He wrote cantatas, an oratorio, and numerous songs and keyboard works. He was music teacher to Charles Wesley, who played at his funeral. His music is also in the Ogle inventory.
Charles Wesley (1757 – 1833) was a member of the famous family of religious reformers. He was a child prodigy but was discouraged by his father from becoming a professional musician. He became an excellent organist and held appointments at several dissenting churches and finally at St. Marylebone parish church.
Matthew Cambridge (ca. 1758 – 1844) studied at the Chapel Royal. Members of his family were organists of York Minster for three generations.





TUNING TEMPERAMENT

The instruments have been tuned to “English Common Temperament,” thought to have been ubiquitous in England during the 18th and early 19th centuries. This temperament was only recently reconstructed by British keyboard historian A.C.N. Mackenzie of Ord and supplied to us by Kenneth Mobbs. Unlike the equal temperament of the modern era, temperaments of the past favored some keys more than others, giving each key a characteristic sound or “color.” This technique gave composers of the period additional options for painting rich landscapes in musical sound. --J.W.


THE PLAYLIST

THE JACOB KIRCKMAN HARPSICHORD
1. Air George Friedrich Handel 1:19

2. Scot’s Ground Robert Bremner 2:20

Lessons By Lully Robert Bremner
3A. Gavotte 1:34
3B. Minuet 1:51

Suite William Felton
4A. Allegro Moderato 1:56
4B. Allegro Assai 1:19
4C. Andante :46
4D. Allegro 1:13

Lessons II Henry Burgess Sr.

5A. Aria 1:00
5B. Minuet 1:28
5C. Gavotte 1:02
6. Minuet Peter Pelham 2:08

Beggar’s Opera Johann Christoph Pepusch
Arrangement, Michael Monaco
7A. Overture 2:45
7B. Oh Polly You Might Have Toy’d and Kissed :24
7C. I, Like a Ship in Storms :26
7D. My Heart Was So Free :29
7E. Where I Laid on Greenland’s Coast :44
7F. Fill Every Glass :31
7G. Let Us Take The Road :56
7H. Youth’s The Season :56
7I. Before the Barn Door Crowing :56
7J. The Modes of the Court :35
7K. Come Sweet Lass :49
7L. The Change is Prepared :48
7M. Would I Might Be Hanged :56
7N. Thus I Stand Like the Turk 1:15

Lessons II Henry Burgess Sr.
8A. Courante 1:36
8B. Sarabanda :57
8C. Minuet :58
8D. Gigue 1:02

9. Minuet Espagna Mr. Dezias 1:41
10. Haste to the Wedding Traditional 1:18
11. The King of Denmark’s Favorite Traditional 1:48
12. First of April Traditional 1:07
13. Minuet d’Alcide Louis Guillaume Pecour 2:26
14. Rule Britania Thomas Augustine Arne :45
Arrangement, Michael Monaco

THE JAMES BALL PIANOFORTE
Sonata IV James Hook
15A. Allegro 1:04
15B. Minueto 2:01

Sonata XI Samuel Arnold
16A. Allegro 3:04
16B. Aria 2:12
16C. Giga 2:04

THE ADCOCK & PETHER CHAMBER ORGAN
17. Voluntary in G Henry Heron 2:41
18. Short Voluntary John Worgan 1:19
19. Pastorale Charles Wesley 3:26
20. Trumpet Voluntary Henry Heron 4:19
21. Gavotte Matthew Cambridge 2:38
22. God Save the King Traditional 1:50
23. Hail to the Conquering Hero Traditional :52


Executive Producer
Richard McCluney

Production Manager
Michael Lombardi

Production Coordinator
Abigail Schumann

Producer/Engineer
Todd A. Judge

Assistant Engineers
Chuck Smith (C.A.S.)
Chris S. P. Jones

Musical Direction
Michael Monaco

Art Direction
Elizabeth Eaton

Photography
Tom Green

Notes
John Watson
Robert Wayne Moss

Editor
Barbara Rust Brown

All selections performed by
Michael Monaco

Instrument tuning &
conservation
John Watson

Mastering by
Masterphonics

All income from the sale of this recording is used for the purposes of The Colonial Williamsburg Foundation, which operates the Historic Area, and to carry forward its educational programs. Colonial Williamsburg welcomes private contributions. Friends interested in discussing gifts to the foundation are invited to contact the Director of Development, The Colonial Williamsburg Foundation, Post Office Box 1776, Williamsburg, Virginia 23187-1776.

©2002 The Colonial Williamsburg Foundation








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